Friday, May 20, 2011

Challenge number 19

This week´s challenge will consist in researching about two aspects of the Counter- Reformation: the Index Librorum Prohibitorum and the Society of Jesus. These are the questions: 


Why were the books of Galileo Galilei, Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler and Desiderius Erasmus included in the Index of Prohibited Books?


What famous picaresque novel written in Castilian was included in the Index?


What do these Latin expressions mean: NIHIL OBSTAT and IMPRIMATUR? What is the relationship between these expressions and the Index Librorum Prohibitorum?

When was the Index Librorum Prohibitorum definitely abolished? What Pope made this decision?


What was the name of the Jesuit missions created in the Castilian and Portuguese colonies in the Indies? What was the role of the Jesuits in these missions?


Laura Meco said...

1)The books of Galileo Galilei, Nicolaus Copernicus and Johannes Kepler were included in the Index of Prohibited Books because they affirmed that the earth moves around an inmovable Sun. And Erasmus had a theory against the Church.
2)A fragment of Qixote was included in the Index of Prohibited Books.
3)NIHIL OBSTAT: this expression comes from other expression which is longer Nihil obstat quominus IMPRIMATUR, which in Spanish means “no existe impedimento para que sea impresa”.
4)It was abolished on the 7th of december in 1965. Pope Paul VI made this decission.
5)The Jesuits proposed a novel idea in which each settlement, called a reducción or redução in Portuguese, was developed as a social and economic extension of the mission to bring the Roman Catholic religion to the indigenous populations, mainly the Guaraní tribes, via spiritual instruction, education, commercial endeavors and trade. These missions would create tribute for the Spanish crown as “payment” for leaving the territories in Jesuit control. There were two priests assigned to each reducción, each with separate and clear duties.

Paqui Pérez Fons said...

Hello Laura,

Question 2 refers to a book that was completely forbidden first and later censored. It wasn´t published without censorship until the 19th century. This book is commonly read in high school and it´s very funny.

Laura Meco said...

I think I know. Is it "Lazarillo de Tormes"?

Paqui Pérez Fons said...

That´s right! Can you guess why was it forbidden?

Laura Meco said...

Yeah!! I think I studied it in Language. It has a high religious critic and it critics the priests and the Church. Is it right?

Paqui Pérez Fons said...

Right again!They censored all the chapters and paragraphs related to the Church. At first it was completely censored because the author was supposed to be an Erasmist: Erasmus also criticised the Church, as Martin Luther did, but he continued to be a Catholic. His followers were persecuted by the Inquisition and his books were censored for this reason. Poor Lazarillo and poor the readers who couldn´t read the complete story!

Laura Meco said...

Thanks for the information! Are the rest of the answers right?

Paqui Pérez Fons said...

Let´s wait to the others´ answers. I have given you a clue about the second question, because I considered this one of the most interesting questions of this challenge. It´s a way of relating what you´ve learned in other subjects with what you´re learning in history.

The solution for the rest of the questions will be here tomorrow around 22:00. Have a good night!

Paqui Pérez Fons said...

Hello again, Laura. All your answers were right except the second part of question 5: the Jesuits had an important role in the defense of the indigenous against the colonists who wanted to convert them in slaves. They fought against slavery and they also had an important role in the knowlegde of indigenous languages, such as Guarani. The film "The mission" tells part of this story. Congratulations, you´re this week´s winner!

Have a good night.