Here you have the presentation about the Indies during the Modern Era. It includes the conquest of the territory, the institutions created to rule it, the exploitation systems used there and the colonial society of the Indies.
Today in social science we have reviewed the territories
that the kings of the 17th century lost: Portugal and all its colonies, the
Rosellon and Cerdaña, and the Low Countries after the 30 years’ war.
Charles II was hermaphrodite because his genetic was mixed
(XXY), he had a feminine face and small genitals. He married two times, one
with Maria Luisa of Orleans and other with Mariana of Neoburg (because in his family
the women had many children), but he finally didn’t have any successor.
He needed help constantly for all (walk, write, eat...). He
learnt to speak, write, read and walk very late.
He sometimes tried to be a good monarch but he had two
Many people thought that he was possessed by demons because
he had many attacks of epilepsy, and they practised him exorcism.
He was on the verge of
death many times and at the end of his life he was consumed. Here is a description
of his death that Paqui has put on the smart board:
The physician who practiced his autopsy stated that his body
"did not contain a single drop of blood; his heart was the size of a
peppercorn; his lungs corroded; his intestines rotten and gangrenous; he had a
single testicle, black as coal, and his head was full of water.
Charles II seemed old with 30 years,
His last testament designed Philip of Bourbon as king,
but the Austrias and other powers in Europe didn’t like, so the Succession War started.
We have studied that there were a lot of problems in
population (decrease) , the economic recession due to the expulsion of the Moorish, the less
demand for products, the nobility was the model of society and the manual work
was seen as an offense, too.
At the end of the class we have corrected the redaction
about Antonio Perez, who was the secretary of Philip II and the murder of
Juan of Escobedo. He first escaped to Aragon because he want the protection of
the Justicia of Aragon but he finally escaped to France.
Hello, I'm Diana. Today in class of Social sciences Paqui has told us what we were going to study this day. Then she has written a scheme in the blackboard about the decline of the Hispanic Monarchy during the 17th century.
The Duke of Lerma was very corrupted, he used his influence with the monarch to become richer. For example, he convinced the king to move the capital city from Madrid to Valladolid so the land in Madrid will be cheaper and he could buy it. When he had bought the land he convinced the king to return the capital city to Madrid and after that he became very rich because he had bought a lot of land in there.
But the queen and also Duke of Uceda weren't happy with all of that so they conspired to get rid of the Duke of Lerma, but he was more intelligent and he became a cardinal so that they couldn't kill him.
After Duke of Lerma's fall in disgrace his son, the Duke of Uceda became the valido of Philip III.
Twelve Years' War (1609-1621): The northern Provinces of the Low Countries became practically independent.
Expulsion of the Moorish (1609): They thought that the Moorish were still a danger for them because they thought that some of these Moorish people continued to pray to Allah, so they decided to expel them. In these time mora than 300,000 people were expelled (20% of the kingdom of Aragón and another 33% from the kingdom of Valencia). This strongly affected the Crown of Aragón's economy.
The second king was Philip IV, he was also lazy and he didn't like to rul, he liked hunting, going to the theatre and he also liked romantic adventures. So his valido was Count-Duke of Olivares, and he has had some ideas and one of them was that all the kingdoms should have the same laws as the kingdom of Castile and to contribute to the expenses in the same way as Castile.
Thirty Years' War (1618-1648): it was the end of the Hispanic hegemony in Europe. At the beginning of this war they didn't intervened, but when France intervine in this war, they also did.
Project of the Union of Arms: It provoked uprising in different kingdoms in 1640:
- Catalonia; supported by France. The conflict ended with the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659). Aragón lost the territories of Rosellón and Cerdaña, so now they belong to France. And also there was the Reapers' War. This war started on the day of the Chorpus Christi.
Today in social sciences we have continued with the explanation of Philip II's life.
As we studied in the last class, Philip was the son of Charles I.
Philip wanted to preserve his Empire and this led to several wars.
-Wars against France. It was the primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestans ( Huguenots). The French were defeacted in the battle of Saint Quentin in 1557, but Philip continued to interfere in France, he took part in the wars of religion, supporting the Catholic.
- Revolt in the Low Countries. Authoritarianism of the government and religious policy provoked a revolt against the king in the Northern Provinces (present Holland). There was discontent in the Netherlands about Philip's taxation demands, and the increasin persecution of Protestants, which declared the independence. The conflict lasted 80 years and it wasn't solved until 1648.
-Confrontation with the Ottoman Turks. The Ottoman Turks threatened the Mediterranean and a coalition was organized to confront them. In 1558, Turkish admiral Piyale Pasha captured the Balearic Islands, especially inflicting great damage on Minorca and enslaving many, while raiding the coasts of the Spanish mainland. Philip appealed to the Pope and other powers in Europe to bring an end to the rising Ottoman threat. Since his father's losses against the Ottomans and against Hayreddin Barbarossa in 1541, the major European sea powers in the Mediterranean, namely Spain and Venice, became hesitant in confronting the Ottomans. The myth of "Turkish invincibility" was becoming a popular story, causing fear and panic among the people. The Holy League defeated the Turks in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.
- Conflict with England. The English supported the Protestants and their corsairs attacked the fleets that came from the Indies and thevitalise the Roman Catholic Church in England. With her death, Philip lost his rights to the English throne (including the ancient English claims to the French throne) and ceased to be King of England, Ireland and (as claimed by them) France. Upon Mary's death, the throne went to Elizabeth I. Philip had no wish to sever his tie with England, and had sent a proposal of marriage to Elizabeth. However, she delayed in answering, and in that time learned Philip was also considering a Valois alliance. Elizabeth I was the Protestant daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. This union was deemed illegitimate by English Catholics who did not recognise Henry's divorce and who claimed that Mary, Queen of Scots, the Catholic great granddaughter of Henry VII, was the legitimate heir to the throne.
For many years Philip maintained peace with England, and even defended Elizabeth from the Pope's threat of excommunication. This was a measure taken to preserve a European balance of power. Ultimately, Elizabeth allied England with the Protestant rebels in the Netherlands. Further, English ships began a policy of piracy against Spanish trade and threatened to plunder the great Spanish treasure ships coming from the new world. English ships went so far as to attack a Spanish port. The last straw for Philip was the Treaty of Nonsuch signed by Elizabeth in 1585 – promising troops and supplies to the rebels. Although it can be argued this English action was the result of Philip's Treaty of Joinville with the Catholic League of France, Philip considered it an act of war by England. Indies. Philip II decided to invade England and he prepared a big navy, the Invincible Armada but the Armada sunk in 1588.Philip's father arranged his marriage to 37-year-old Queen Mary I of England, Charles' maternal first cousin. To elevate Philip to Mary's rank, his father ceded the crown of Naples, as well as his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, to him. Philip and Mary appeared on coins together, with a single crown suspended between them as a symbol of joint reign. The Great Seal shows Philip and Mary seated on thrones, holding the crown together The coat of arms of England was impaled with Philip's to denote their joint reign. Mary died in 1558.
All these wars were very expensive and they ruined the economy. Philip was forced to declared bankruptcy several times.
We have also studied the economy in the 16th century.
The economy experienced was a price revolution provoked by the arrival of big amounts of precious metals from the Indies. Prices increased because there was not enought production to satisfy the demands.
Hi! I'm Manal, and today I'm going to explain you what we have learnt in social sciences.
At first, Paqui has showed us a Charles' family image, to understand better his family, because they married with people of their own family, so they had problems to have children, and some of the children that they had, were mentally ill. For that, Charles I was proclaimed king of Castile And Aragon. But this is only a summary of what we did yesterday.
Now I'm going to explain you about the Philip II's life
He was the king of some countries, like some part of italy, south of America, most of the coasts of Africa and the Low Countries .To these countries we can add Philippines.
As his mother was from Portugaal, and there weren't successors, he became the king of Portugal.
He didn't move much, he stayed during his life in the peninsula. He lived in Castile, in Madrid. he established Madrid as capital city. He ordered build The Monastery of El Escorial, where he lived. this was his bedroom.
The most interesting and beautiful place in El Escorial was the library. Another interesting place was the cemetery that consists of a crypt, where most of the Spanish monarchs were buried. But Philip V and FernandoVI were buried in other places.
Hello, I'm Andrei. Today has been the third day of class of Social Sciences.
At the beginning of the lesson Paqui has drawn us a Family Tree of the Catholic Monarchs. The Catholic Monarchs had 5 children and the names of their children were: Isabella, Joana, Mary, Catherine and John. Paqui also has explained us that the mortality was very high until the 19th century.
Then, we have copied a scheme about Charles I's reign. In this scheme we have spoken about the heritage of Charles I, the problems in the Peninsunla and the imperial policy.
Charles I was living in Ghent, and he didn´t arrive in the Peninsula until 1517. His grandfather Maximilian died, but his mother was alive. She couldn`t rule because she had mental problems, so Charles I was proclaimed king of Castile and Aragón. He had to respect some conditions. During his reign he had some internal problems. The most important revolts were the revolt of the Comuneros in Castile and the revolt of the Germanías in Valencia and Mallorca.
The revolt of the Comuneros started in 1520 and it finished in 1521. Many Castilian cities revolted against the King due to the new taxes they had to pay. The leaders of the revolt were Bravo, Padilla and Maldonado. Definitely they were defeated in the Battle of Villalar in 1521.
The execution of the leaders of the revolt (Bravo, Padilla and Maldonado)
The revolt of the Germanías in Valencia and Mallorca lasted from 1519 to 1521. It was a revolt of craftsmen and peasants who wanted to have access to the government in the municipalities and an improvement in the conditions of renting their lands.
Afterwards, Paqui has explained us the Imperial policy during Charles I's reign. Here they had objectives and problems. The objectives were to defend the empire and to defend the Catholicism, and the problems were several wars against France( Charles annexed Milan to the empire), against the Muslims(Charles occupied Tunis in 1523) and against the Protestants ( In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg was signed).
Finally, at the end of the class we have copied a scheme about Philip II's reign. The contents of this scheme were the heritage, the government and the objectives and the problems.
-Pope - Papa
-Barbary pirates - piratas berberiscos
-Renting conditions - condiciones de arrendamiento
-Crash - aplastar
-Wool - lana
-By force - por la fuerza
-Blackmail - sobornar
-Siege - sitiar
-Lift the siege - levantar el sitio
-Excommunicate - excomulgar
-Schmalkaldic league - liga de Esmalcalda
-Augsburg peace - paz de Augsburgo
-Atheist - ateo
Here you have the presentation about the Hispanic Momarchy during the 16th and 17th centuries:
And this is the family tree of the Hispanic Monarchs, starting from the Catholic Monarchs until Philip V. As you can see, endogamous relations were common, in orede to preserve alliances. There were cases of: marriages:
- between cousins, like the one of the Catholic Monarchs (both belonged to the Trastámara dynasty) or Charles I and Isabella of Portugal.
- between aunts and nephews, like the one between Philip II and his aunt Mary Tudor (Catherine of Aragón and Henry VIII's daughter)
- between uncles and nieces, like the one between Philip II and Anna of Austria or the one between Philip IV and Mariana of Austria.
Everything was allowed for the continuation of the dynasty, but this inbreeding had seroius consequences, with handicaped children. Charles II, a disabled monarch, was the culmination of this marriage policy.
everyone. Today has been the second day of Social Sciences, but for me, and I
don’t know if for everyone else too, this lesson has been the first one,
because the other one was only to meet each other and to talk a little bit
about what this term is going to be like. In my opinion, the blog is a very good
idea, because we can check and review every content we’ve studied, but this
reply is not to say my opinion. Well, perhaps in some aspects, but I think this
is not the best moment.
beginning of the lesson, Paqui has showed us her new friend called Andrei.
Apparently, the “real” Andrei gave her his wrong email address, and Paqui has
contacted with another man who’s called with the same name. It seems that this
is not the first time this man appears in Paqui’s inbox, because in 2nd
ESO Andrei did the same. Well, who knows, perhaps this is the beginning of a
beautiful friendship between Paqui and him.
Andrei, don’t forget the name of your email account anymore.)
started with “unit 1”. In reality, “The 16th and 17th
centuries” are units 8 and 9 from the 3rd ESO’s book, but as we didn’t
learn it in 2nd ESO, we’re studying it now, but joined in only one
unit. I prefer to study it and to go on with the 4th ESOS’s content
better than forget about it and start learning something that doesn’t connect with
our knowledge of 2nd ESO, I don’t know if you follow what I want to
copied the index of this unit full of kings, reigns, territories and,
naturally, history. The first part talks mostly about the 16th
century, where we can see the Hispanic Monarchy under the Habsburg dynasty with Charles I and Philip II,
and also the 17th century decline with Charles II, Philip III and IV’s.
In this first part we are going to work in groups of 3/4 people and what we
have to do is a project which consists of a board game. I think we’re going to have
a lot of fun, playing and learning at the same time.
second part of the index, there is information about the 17th century,
like its crisis, the Thirty Year’s War, the absolute monarchy, the English
revolutions and some content of culture and art. In the Baroque Art, we have to
prepare an individual project. I think it will be interesting.
started talking about Charles I, his family, the territories he had and some
curious things about his life. Did you know that he became king at the age of
five? No? Neither did I, so don’t worry. I can’t understand why people let
children govern a kingdom, even if they were oriented by his court or the
people who had to make the decisions on the child king behalf.
heard in class, Charles’ family was a little bit unlucky. Why? Well, a lot of
members died, but not because of the advanced age. I mean, perhaps there was
someone who did, but the rest passed away because of illnesses, or I don’t know
why, but I’m sure that if Paqui’s said that they didn't have much luck; it is because
there was something here that didn’t work.
Here is the
Family Tree that Paqui has showed us in class.
Well, as I
was saying (sorry, I go on and on very frequently), some members of Charles’
family died, so Charles I inherited a lot of territories like the Indies, Castile, some territories in the north of Africa and the Canary Islands
from his mother Joanna the Mad, Aragon, Sardinia, Sicily and Naples
from his grandfather Ferdinand of Aragón, Burgundy territories from his
father Philip the Handsome and the Austrian territories from his other grandfather
Maximilian of Habsburg.
We’ve seen the conquest of the American territories superficially, the Aztecs, the Incas, etc. In the
glossary, we’ve copied some words like hegemony and supremacy. The difference
between them is that hegemony is the political, economic, or military
predominance or control of onestateover others and supremacy is the domination of one group
over another one.
And with this, I've ended my journal. See you next time. Thanks for reading.
Welcome back! A new school year has started and here we are again. This year there are 23 students in 4th year of ESO and they have committed themselves to work on the blog everytime they have to do it. Let's see if this is true. I hope so.
During this afternoon I will send you the invitations and instructions to join the blog and a short tutorial about how to get started with the basic tasks you will have to do. Here you have a short summary:
- Your work will consist of writing the explanation of what we have done during the lesson.
- You will have to add at least one picture related to the contentsof the lesson and its source (the website where you have found it). Here you have an example:
- Don't change the font nor the colour of the text. Respect the predetermined font.
- If you want to include videos, presentations, podcasts..., remember that you have to copy and paste the HTML code on the HTML side.
- Remember to include some labels or tags. 4th ESO A-B is compulsory. You can use the ones already created or create new ones with your name or the key words of the contents we learn. For example: Baroque art, Hispanic Monarchy, France...
- The deadline to write your post will be 21:00.
- The rest of the students will have to contribute to improve the journal with your comments. You can point out the contents the the other students have forgotten, suggest resources related to the lesson, correct the grammar mistakes...
- One I tell you in class that I have checked your journal, you will have to correct it within the same week. I will tell you about the corrections on Monday, so that you can have the whole week to correct them. If you don't correct it, the mark you will get will be lower, correspoding to what I have read.
That's all. If you have any doubts, just ask. See you in class!