Monday, April 30, 2012

125,000 visits!!

Hello everybody!! We reached 125,000 on the blog and nobody has written any post about it!
Thank you to all the people that visit our blog and to all my classmates who participate sometimes more sometimes less on the blog. We have to continued in this way and in few these we are going to reach 127,000 visits. Come on, we can! :)

Thursday, April 26, 2012

26th of April, 2012

Today in Social Sciences, Paqui has started the lesson explaining how to include our PowerPoint presentations in the blog. First, we have to sign up on this website: Later, we have to upload the presentation, copy its code and to paste it in the editing site of the blog (HTML). We don't have to upload them before wednesday, because other people can copy the information of your presentation. She has created a collective account but she has said that it's better to have a personal account. She has also said that we don't have to allow other people to download the file. She has shown us how to do it.
After these technical explanations, we have continued with the Russian Revolution.

Paqui has shown the PowerPoint and we have remembered that the Tsar was supported by the Orthodox Church, the bureaucracy (police, civil servants...) etc. Only in some cities there were industries and workers. Then we have copied a scheme about the Political parties in Russia. They were all illegal and forbidden and some of them were:

- A Liberal party -> Constitutional Democratic Party (KDT) with liberal ideology.

- Workers' parties -> Socialist- Revolutionary Party (SRP) which was focused in peasants.
-> Russian Social Democratic: Liberal party (RSDLP) with the Marxist ideology and focused on industrial workers. Divided into:

·Mensheviks, which were the majority until October 1917. In russian, "menshe" means: less (in contraditcion of the members).
·Bolsheviks, which were the minority until October 1917. In russian, "bolshe" means: more (again, in contradiction of its members). Its leader was Vladimir Lenin.

Afterwards, we have read a small paragraph about The 1905 Revolution. As Japan wanted Russia, the russian workers demonstrated and the revolt extended.
Then, we have copied some information :
Protests started in different cities after the Russian defeat in the Russo- Japanese War (1904-1905). The tsar tried to stop protests by force, but it didn't work. Soviets appeared for the first time: they were councils of workers, peasants and soldiers who met to coordinate protests and demands. The tsar promised some reforms to make Russia a constitutional regime (a constitution, universal suffrage...) but he didn't keep any promise and he continued repressing opposition. Many leaders of the opposition had to go to exile.

Paqui has shown us an image of a battleship " Potemkin" which was the ship rebelled against the officers of the Tsarist regime in 1905.

The new words we've learnt are: Menshevik- Menchevique
Bolshevik- Bolchevique
Demonstration- Manifestación
Finally, the bell has rung and Paqui hasn't given us any homework because we have to finish the projects

To end with WW1

Here you have some political cartoons about the consequences of the Conference of Paris and the Treaty of Versailles: 

- The execution of Germany, according by Simplicissimus, a German magazine: 

- The winners obliging Germany to swallow the peace terms´ pill:

- The military sanctions to Germany: 

-Hard sanctions imposed to Germany and the difficulties for its recovery: 


-The peace treaties seen as future cannon fodders:

- Germany slapped by Versailles hand: 

- Clemenceau, the French president, represented as a vampire, sucking Germany´s blood: 

- The need for an impartial referee in Europe: 

The following cartoons refer to the hopes pinned on the League of Nations as guarantor of peace: 

- President Wilson´s idealism blowing up the bubble of the League of Nations: 

- The League of Nations as the rainbow afyer the storm of war and as the muzzle that would contain the dog of war: 

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

25th April 2012

Today in Social Sciences, at the beggining of the class Paqui has said that, she is disagree to change the deadline of the project, because we have had time to finish it. She has said that if we send the project to her to check our mistakes, it is a better way to learn more.

After that, Alejandro has started checking the exercise about the consequences of First World War. More than 16.5 million dead and 21 million wounded and the Spanish flu epidemics increased the number of dead. Paqui has written on the blog about the Spanish flu, she has recommended us that we can  have a look to it. About economic consequences, industry and agriculture of the countries that had fought were destroyed.  There were also political consequences; Europe lost its position as the center of the world and was substitued by extra- European powers (USA and Japan). There were territorial consequences such as, disappearance of the big Empires of the 19th century, changes of borders, new countries appeared... Finally, moral and psychological were another consequences, because war horrors provoked: social trauma, disillusionment, cynicism and distrust in the politicians. And there were two opposite reations: one bet for internationalism and search for peace and another one focused on militarism and violence as a way of solving problems. 

When we have finished to check it, Yolanda has asked a question about the blog, because it has changed and she didn't understand it. So Paqui has explained us how to use it. Then we have continued with WW1 and Paqui has explained us the meaning of creditor, is someone who has lent money to others and has to get it back. For example: When the USA, the most important country, lent money to Europe countries, and then Europe countries gave it back. The next thing we have seen, has been the meaning of mandate: types of colonies appeared after WW1. They were officially under the League of Nations' control, but in fact their administration was given to the winners of the war (UK, France) and they ruled them as if they were protectorates. UK received: Transjordan, Palestine and Egypt. Winners thought that war was the solution but some losers thought it wasn't the solution. After that, Paqui has showed us this cartoon:

She has explained us what's the meaning of that. It means that after Versailles Treaty will appear Hitler.

When we have finished with WW1, Paqui has showed us Yolanda's power point, it was great. Paqui has given us an advice, we have to do the project summarizing information. 

Finally, at the end of the class, we have started the Russian revolution. We will see different parts: 
  A) Russia under the Tsars
  B) The Revolution of 1905
  C) The Revolution of 1917:
          1. Causes.
          2. Development.
          3. Consequences.
  D) The Civil War and the creation of the USSR.
  E) Stalinism. 

We have started with the first point: Russia under the Tsars, but as we haven't had time, we have copied from the whiteboard that Paqui has written, and the next day she will explain it to us. 


1. Creditor: acreedor.
2. To own money: deber dinero.
3. To cede (give): ceder.
4. Current: actual.
5. Disillusionment: desengaño.
6. Distrust: desconfianza.
7. Cynicism: cinismo.
8. To warn: advertir
9. Italic font: cursiva
10. Bold font: negrita
11. Tsar: zar
12. Autocracy: autrocacia.
13. Backwards: atrasado.
15. Backwardness: atraso.

Tuesday, April 24, 2012

More about the Spanish Flu

Sign warning about the number of cases caused by the Spanish Flu at a Navy factory

Yesterday we studied that the total number of casualties of WW1 increased due to the Spanish Flu. The flu virus was brought to Europe by the USA soldiers who started arriving in the battle fields at the beginning of 1918. After four years of war the population of the belligerent countries was weak, due to food rationing and famines, and the virus quickly spread across the continent and became a pandemic (world epidemic). But, why was this pandemic called "Spanish Flu"? As Spain was neutral during the war, there was no censorship about the number of dead and the Spanish press was the first to publish news about the effects of the pandemic. This is why the flu started being known as the "Spanish Flu". From Europe the virus extended to Asia and Africa. The Spanish Flu killed between 50-100 million people in two years. 

Map showing the expansion of the pandemics

If you want to read more about the Spanish Flu, here you have some links: 

Monday, April 23, 2012

23rd/ April/ 2012

Today in Social Sciences we have done a review about the Conference of Paris. In this conference, only the winners could attend, the defeated countries weren´t allowed to attend.
The president of the U.S.A, Woodrow Wilson, presented a Fourteen- Point Plan, based on the right of self- determination, but this right wasn´t given to all the peoples which wanted to create their own nations. The winners obliged the losers to sign separated peace treaties. There were five peace treaties in total:
-Sevres, with the Ottoman Empire.
-Trianon, with Hungary.
-St. Germain in Austria.
-Nevilly in Bulgaria.
-Versailles with Germany. It was the most important treaty because led to the Creation of the League of Nations.  The League of Nations was a precedent of the United Nations and the main objectives were: preserving peace and solving international problems un a peaceful way. But it was weak since it was created because the U.S.A didn´t join it, all the countries had the same power and decisions had to be unanimous, there wasn´t army to impose their sanctions.
In this Treaty, there were some territorial sanctions, Germany lost 1/8 of its territory and its empire was distributed between the U.K(1/3 of Togoland and Cameroon and Tangonyka and New Guinea in Asia), France( 2/3 of Togoland and Cameroon),Belgium(Rwanda and Burundi) and South Africa Union which was under U.K control at the same time,(German Western Africa, present Namibia). Like South Africa continued to be a colony, Paqui has explained us that after World War 2, many of the colonial empires started to become independent.
Other sanctions were, the military sanctions like, demilitarization of the West bank of River Rhine.
Afterwards, we have been seeing some pictures about the stab in the back in which the German government had treasoned the German people by accepting Versailles Treaty.
Paqui has explained us how was Europe after the war: the disintegration of the Austro- Hungarian Empire gave birth to two new States: Austria and Hungary and the Slaves of the south created Yugoslavia. Another disintegration was the Ottoman Empire. Paqui has told us that many present problems in Iraq came from this war, for example one of the main problems is the Kurds.
We have continued with the unit and we have started to read the consequences of War, but the bell has rung, so we have to do an exercise for homework about it.
Paqui has explained the meaning of Spanish flu. The flu was introduced by U.S.A soldiers in Europe, but it received the name of Spanish flu because the main cases studied were in Spain. We have been talking about John Maynard Keynes, who was a British economist that wrote a book warned about the economic consequences of an unfair peace.
We have learn some new words like:
To attend: asistir.
Guidelines: orientaciones.
Diktat: humillación
Buffer area: cordon sanitario. It was an area created to stop the spread of revolutionary ideas in 1919, coming from Russia.
Casualties: víctimas.
Disabled/ handicapped: discapacitados, mutilados.

Thursday, April 19, 2012

19th of April

Today in social sciences, at the beginning of the class, Daniel, Andrea and Laura B were doing the make-up exam, I hope that your exam was easy!

The Paris Peace Conference (1919)

We have started reading the pages 54 and 55 of the book about the Conference of Paris and the Consequences of the WW1. As we read, Paqui has checked who is left in today's class. Laura M and Bea A were in Tomelloso and Enrique was at the doctor. Before we started explaining the pages, some classmates have asked to Paqui some doubts about the project-work of unit 6.

After this, Paqui has started to write a summary of the the Conference of Paris. 32 countries participate in the conference (only the winners) and the main facts of the conference was to sing a treaty of peace. The winners signed separated peace treaties with every defeated country (the most important was the treaty of Versailles).

Afterwards, Paqui has cleaned the blackboard and started to write a scheme of the Treaty of Versailles. She has started written that Germany was considered to be the main responsible of the WW1. After this, she has wrote the economic and one territorial punishments established to Germany. 

- The economic punishment was to paid to the affected countries 67,000 millions of euros (i don't remember what was the past currency), this quantity of money was mainly for France and Belgium and they finished to pay in September of 2010!
- The territorial punishment was to lose 1/8 of its territory. (I supposed that this part of the scheme is incomplete)

After this, we were talking a lot, so Paqui shouted SILENCE! She's right, we talk so much in class.

When Paqui was explaining us a cartoons about the Treaty of Versailles, the bell has rung. We have not had time to complete the scheme, so we will finish it in our home.

Thank you for see, bye! 

Juan Carlos Huertas

Wednesday, April 18, 2012

´The 4th stage: the end of the war

Today, at the begining of the lesson we have told about the project of the unit 6. Paqui has told us that we put too information that we don't need.

Then, we have started the lesson. The Meco has read her scheme about the end of the World War I, the 4th stage, to complete it of previous day. When the Meco has finished to read, Paqui has commanded Mery Light to a chalk, because she has to write the scheme that Meco's read. Meanwhile Paqui has explained us the Armistice of Rethondes, it signed on a railvagon in 11th November of 1918. In June 1940, when France surrendered to the nazis, Hitler ordered where has to be signed.


When Mery Light has become, Paqui has wrote the scheme about the 4th stage: the end of the war (1918)

- Two important facts for the end of war: arrival of refreshment troops from the USA and signature of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty (Russia left the war).

- The Germans launched two offensives in the Western front, but they didn't work. Their allies surrendered (Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire) or were defeated (Austria-Hungary)

- The fear for a revolution in Germany led the government to sign the Armistice of Rethondes (11th Nov. 1918). The Kaiser fled to Holland and the Republic was proclaimed in Germany.

At the end of the lesson, Paqui has read us some parts of one book, "Fear" was wrote by Gabriel Chevallier. It's a real history about the World War I.

This is all, byeee!!!!

Monday, April 16, 2012

World War I: Stages of the War

Hi everybody!

Today, at the beginning of the lesson there were some people on the corridor and Paqui has told them to go into the class. Then, we have started the lesson. We have started checking exercise 4, in which we had to explain the stages of World War I. It had four stages: War of Movement, War of Attrition, 1917 Crisis and The end of the war. And we have explained the three first ones:


In this war, everybody thought that war would be short. The armies moved towards their enemies and two fronts were created: the Western and the Eastern Front.
- In the Western Front, the Germans attacked according to the SCHLIEFFEN PLAN, but were stopped by the French at the BATTLE OF MARNE.
- In the Eastern Front, the Germans advanced quickly and defeated the Russians in the Masurian lakes and Tannenberg.
Paqui has shown us a map of the PowerPoint Presentation of the unit, where we could see how the armies moved according to the Schlieffen Plan.
By the end of 1914 all the armies had to dig trenches and the fronts stabilized.

WAR OF ATTRITION (1915-1916)

The trenches became hell for the soldiers (muddy, full of bedbugs, lice, fleas, rats) and they had to live and fight to gain some meters. New countries joined the war (Italy: the Triple Entente; Ottoman Empire: Central Powers) and a THIRD FRONT openned at the Balkans. The bloddiest battle of this war was the Battle of Verdum: there were 800,000 casualties (300,000 dead and 500,000 wounded). In the Eastern Front, the Germans forced the Russians to retire back. The British occupied Palestine from Egypt.


In this stage, all the countries went through serious internal problems and there were soldiers' mutinies in all fronts. The British gained a lot of territories in the Arabian Peninsula with the Arabs' help (convinced by Lawrence of Arabia). (Paqui has told us there is a great song about this man). The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia had a strong impact and the Bolsheviks started negotiations to leave the war. And the U.S.A. decided to join the war due to the German attacks to their ships, which collapsed trade.

We haven't finished checking this exercise, so next day, we will explain the last stage of the war: The end of the war (1918).

The new words we have learned today are:
War of Attrition: Guerra de Desgaste
Bedbugs: chinches
Louse/lice: piojo/s
Flea: pulga
Casualty: víctima
To wound: herir

At the end of the lesson, Paqui has looked for the song about Lawrence of Arabia on YouTube, but the bell has rung and we haven't had time to listen to it. If anybody is interested on this song, you can listen to it by clicking this link:

That's all for today! Byeee :)

Thursday, April 12, 2012

12th April 2012

Today in Social Sciences... we have asked Paqui some questions we had about project of unit 6: Art in the 18th and 19th centuries. Paqui has explained us the way to do well and she has sawn us a poster she wrote here in the blog about what had we have to do. To explaining it better, she has written some examples of slides in the blackboard. She has written an example for the work of the style we have to do, these are the steps:

  • Tittle

  • Author

  • Actual localization

  • Chronology

  • Painted in Material used: (for example: oil in canvas)

  • Description

  • The main characterictics of the style in relation with the work

  • A photo of the work

She has also explained how to do the last slide: Bibliography. She has helped us a lot. Afterwards Paqui has summerized what we did yesterday and she has explained again faster. Then we have seen the War Propaganda and some examples that Paqui has explained very well. These are some examples:

This one advertised citizens to save food for the soldiers>

Last example means that women had to work at factories replacing men, who are at war

Today we have learnt some new words for the glossary:
-To save: ahorrar
-War bounds: bonos de guerra

This is all for today. The class has been interesting and very short!

Picture 1:,r:0,s:0,i:130

Picture 2:,r:3,s:157,i:209

Picture 3:,r:57,s:0,i:108&tx=59&ty=77

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

11th of April, 2012

Today, has been the first day after the Eastern holidays and the people that failed the second term have decided the day for the make-up exam it's going to be the Thursday, 19th of April.
Paqui has remembered us the last things that we studied before Eastern. Afterwards, we have checked the exercises. The first exercise, was checked by Laura Muñoz and it was about the outbreak of World War I and Paqui has copied on the blackboard like a summary of the exercise:
The trigger: was the assassination of the heirs of Austria-Hungary in Sarajevo on the 28th of June killed by a Serbian nationalist.
Austria-Hungary sen a 48 hours ultimatum to Serbia. In the outbreak the Austria-Hungary attacked Serbia. On the 28th of July, Russia defended Serbia and alliances started working and in some days almost all the European countries were involved at war, only Italy kept out.
Afterwards, Paqui has copied the way in which Germany attack on the blackboard and she has said that we have to remember that they dedicated a lot of time preparing war's plans. The first German war plan was the Schlieffen Plan in 1905, which foresaw a war in two fronts: the Eastern front against Russia and the Western front against France. In order to concentrate all the efforts in the Eastern front, the Germans planned a very quick campaign against France, which included invading Belgium to attack France by surprise and break its defenses. They calculated five weeks of war and the final take of Paris.


Then, we have seen an animation on the internet about the Western front between 1914 to 1918. And Paqui has explained the meaning of the different colours. They always fought in the same place, they didn't move, only some kilometres like we have seen in the different slides of the animation. Afterwards, Sara Gil has checked the exercises 3 about the features of the war which were:
-New and deadlier armament: (machine guns, poison gas, aeroplanes, tanks...). Soldiers suffered a lot and there were disabled and dead people.
-Civil population become war target. Cities were bombed and citizens suffered at rearguard.
-War economy: all the resources were mobilized and destined for war, industries and agricultural production were restructurate to supply the army, women substituted men at work.
-Governments of national unity.
-Use of propaganda to rally population and demonize the enemy. The opposers considered traitors and sent to jail.
Paqui has said that, workers and anarchists were against war and it was a general war because a lot of countries fought. We have seen photos of some new weapons such as aeroplanes, airships, tanks, machine guns... and they were deadlier. Also Paqui has said that New Zealand was the first country that recognized the right of women to vote in 1919, was a complete universal suffrage. The government of national unity was formed by different parties.
Today, in the class we have learnt a lot of new words that Paqui has written on the blackboard:
to foresee (prever), airship (dirigible), machine gun (ametralladora), tank (tanque, carro de combate), poison gas (gas tóxico), flamethrowers (lanzallamas), deadlier (más mortiferos), railway gun (cañón de largo alcance), war target (objetivo de guerra), food rationing (racionamiento), war economy (economía de guerra), government of national unity (gobierno de concentración nacional) and to rally (reunir).