Saturday, November 29, 2014

28th of November (Friday)




Hello Everybody!

Today I'm going to write the journal.

In the class of Social Sciences we have been copying some notes in our notebook. We have copied a serie of dates related to the 18th century in the U.S.A. and Spain:

-1775: The Battle of Lexington and Concord
-1776: 2nd congress of Philadelphia --> Declaration of the Independence
-1777: Battle of Saratoga
-1781: Battle of Yorktown. Colonist supported by France and Spain
-1783: Treaty of Versailles --> U.S.A.
-1791: 10 first amendments (Bill of Rights). The constitution has been amended 27 times.

She has explained why was a Federal and Presidentialist Republic:

-It was Federal: it was divided into states that have a lot of powers: own laws, police, education system, courts of justice...
- It was Presidentialist: the president holds wide powers.
- It was a Republic: because he was elected by the people.

The federal government had:
- Foreign affairs
- Economic Policy
- Currency
- Defense.

We also have started the point 4 that is divided in:
A) War of Spanish Succession
B) Centralized Absolutism: Philip V and Ferdinand VI
C) Enlightened Reformism: Charles III

We have copied an scheme to develope about War of Spanish succession that has to include:
-CAUSES
-CANDIDATES TO THE THRONE AND SUPPORTERS
-DEVELOPMENT
-CONSEQUENCES

We have to do it for homework.

Here I put you a Photo about the War of Spanish Succession. Bye!!
 
http://www.armchairgeneral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=59726&page=27

Friday, November 28, 2014

27th of November (Thursday)



Hello everybody! I'm Gustavo and I write the journal today.

We have started the class correcting some exercises about the reasons of discontent of North American colonist against the English goverment, the Boston Tea Party, the Independence War of the U.S.A, the ideas of the first written constitution of history and the causes and development of the War of Spanish Succession.
I have all this exercises well done, exept the last, because I had written too little.

Flag of USA
Source: http://bespokemarketingacquisitions.co.uk/bespoke-marketing-acquisitions-review-expand-usa/

During the class we have copied some words in the glossary like everyday:
-Happenine- Artistic Personmance
-Truck- Camión
-Spark- Chispa
-Trigger for 5th- Detonante de...
-Unalienable- Inalienable
-Sript- Guión
-Premiére- Estreno
-To amend- Corregir, cambiar una ley
-Amendment- Enmienda
-Prohibition- Ley Seca

Bye!



Thursday, November 27, 2014

Thursday, 27th of November.

Hello everyone! I am Minerva. 

Today in Social Sciences we have done a lot of things. 

At first, we have corrected the summary we had to do for today. It was about the War of the Spanish Succession. María has read the causes which caused this war; as Charles II died without successors, he left his kingdoms to Philip of Anjou who was Louis XIV's grandson. But some countries (Austria, the Low Countries, Portugal, Great Britain and the crown of Aragón) were against the French influence over the Hispanic Monarchy and supported Archduke Charles of Austria. In the Iberian Peninsula, Aragón feared for the French absolutism. 


Philip V's painting in Xátiva Museum 
 
Then, Andrea has read the next point that was about the candidates to the throne and its supporters. 
Azahara has read the development of the war. There were equal forces on both sides, the British invaded Gibraltar and Minorca, the French - Castilian army defeated those who supported Archduke Charles in Almansa (1707). When the Emperor of Austria died, Archduke Charles became Emperor, so after this, the Europeans powers looked for an agreement to end the war (The Treaty of Utrecht). But the war continued in Catalonia until 1714, when Barcelona was bombed by Philip V's order. Finally they surrender. 
With the Treaty of Utrecht, Philip V became the king and he had to renounce to his rights of the Crown of France and all the European territories Spain had, were distributed among Austria and Savoy. Great Britain kept Minorca and Gibraltar and they received  two rights in the Indies: the Assiento and the ship of permission. 

 Treaty of Utrecht

Finally we have copied the consequences of the war because we didn't find them in our book. We have copied some of them but Paqui has said that there were more. One of them was, for example, the birth of Spain as a unified nation with the imposition of the laws of Castile to all the territories (only Navarre and the Basque provinces kept their fueros). 

Secondly, we have started a new scheme with the title of "The 1st Bourbons (18th century)". Paqui has started explaining us Philip V's reign with some slides. He imposed absolutism, inspired on France's political system. New Planta Decrees were imposed to the Crown of Aragón created, all the Castilian institutions were extended to all the territory, the king was helped by secretaries and councils and intendants were used to collect taxes. 
Philip V decided to abdicate in favour of his son Louis in 1724. Louis I reigned only for six months because he died. So Philip V was forced to return to the throne but he was helped by secretaries. After his death in 1746, Ferdinand VI (son of Philip V's first wife) became the new king. 
We have started the Ferdinand VI's reign but the bell has rung. So we have to finish the 1st part of the scheme for the next day. 

 Ferdinand VI
Here you have this interesting video about all we have studied about the War of the Spanish Succession. Hope you like it! 



As always, we have written down some new words in our glossary:
- To fear for/to be afraid of: temer.
- Enthroning: entronización. 
- Remorse: remordimiento. 
- Nueva Planta Decrees: Decretos de Nueva Planta.
- Barely: rara vez, pocas veces.
- Intendant: intendente. 
- Survey: encuesta.
- To complain: quejarse.
- Cadastre: catastro. 

This is all for today, hope you have a nice weekend! See you on Monday :) 

Tuesday, November 25, 2014

25th November (Tuesday)

Hi everyone! I am Cristina.

I'm going to tell you what we have done today in Social Sciences class:
First of all, we have waved the teacher as everyday, but the difference today is that José Luis has called the teacher "Paquita" (I don't know why).

Then, we have summarized what we learnt last day about Enlightened Despotism: the last years of the 18th century, there were some revolutions due to de Enlightened Despotism, which consisted in some European monarchs who adopted ideas of the Enlightenment for introducing changes in their kingdoms and for trying to preserve their absolute power. The made changes without asking for the population's permission. The administrative, educational and economic changes some monarchs made didn't satisfy most of the population, because they reformed only what they wanted to. They said "Everything for the people, but without the people".

We have established the date of the exam: we will take it on Thursday, 11th of December.

After that, we have spent nearly the whole lesson talking about the part B of the third point of the unit: The Independence of the British colonies of North America.
In the second half of the 18th century, there were 13 British colonies in North America. There were many protests against the metropolis, such as the reaction against the increase of the tea tax. This revolt caused the assault to a British ship by some colonists, who threw away all the tea cargo to the sea: the Boston Tea Party.

Then we have talked about the Declaration of Independence, written by Tomas Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin to achieve the independence of the United States.

Finally, as most of the days, we have learnt something curious: we saw few days ago in the news that the president of the United States of America has issued a decree that legalizes 5,000,000 illegal inmigrants living in the USA. We have also talked about people who obtain visas to stay in the USA in exchange for having a stable job. This has reminded me a good example of what we have said: I saw that in a chapter of a TV series I like, one of the main characters has to look for a new job because if she doesn't find it in two months, they will deport her back to Canada.

In my opinion, today's lesson has been interesting and a bit different, because in stead of giving us a scheme to complete it, Paqui has given us some exercises to do from the Review.

I'd like to share with you a nice video about the Declaration of Independence:

 



Tuesday, 25th of November

Hello everybody! I 'm Clara Inés and this is my second journal of the year.

Today in Social Sciences we have done a lot of things.

At first we have corrected the exercises that Paqui has gave us for today, about the Type of State and Constitution in USA
The type of state was divided into Federal Republic which means that every state has important powers: own laws, own courts of justice..., and the Presidentalist Republic, which means that the president holds wide powers.
And the Constitution was divided into the Principles on which it was based which includes seven articles with the organization of the new State, based on the principles of political liberalism. The Content was freedom, property, religious freedom, freedom of speech, press freedom, right to wear weapons. And the Amendments which are 27 up to this moment and included the abolution of slavery, the right to vote for women for black people, the prohibition of alcohol... and so on

Later Paqui has started to explain the last point of this unit, Spain in the 18th century,A) War of Spanish Succesion (1700-1714). When Charles II died without direct succesors, he left his kingdom to Philip of Anjou. Louis XIV's grandson and a lot of people disagreed with his testament. Austria, the Low Countries, Portugal and Great Britain were against the French influence over the Hispanic Monarchy and supported Archduke Charles of Austria. In the Iberian Peninsula: Castile supported Philip of Anjou and Aragon supported Archduke Charles.
                                                                      
                                                                                            Philip of Anjou                                 
                                           Source: http://www.cachecoins.org/leopoldhre.htm                                                                                                                    
                                                              Archduke Charles of Austria                                    Source:http://roble.pntic.mec.es/fpef0013/18thcentury/four.htm          


In the development of the war Paqui has explained this with a map and said that they had equal forces on both sides; the British invaded Gibraltar and Minorca; the French-Castilian army defeated those who supported Archduke Charles in Almansa; When the emperor of Austria died, Archduke Charles became emperor. Fearing Austria's reinforcement, the European powers looked for an agreement to end the war and they signed the Treatry of Utrecht, Spain appeared with the Nueva Planta decrees Philip V issued to punish the reings of the Crown of Aragón. Later the war continued in Catalonia until 1714, when Barcelona was bombed by Philip V's order. Finally they surrendered.

                                                                                        Battle of Almansa
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Almansa

The Treaty of Utrecht included the following decisions: Philip V was recognized king of the Hispanic Monarchy; The Europeans territories of Hispanic Monarchy were distributed among Austria and Savoy; Great Britain preserved Gibraltar and Minorca and they got also two important rights: the assiento: they could sell black slaves in the Indies and the ship of permission: once a year they could send a 500 tons ship with their products to be sold in the Indies.

                                 Source: http://ieslarochahistory.blogspot.com.es/p/blog-page.html

We have also added some new words to our glossary:
Take the risk-Arriesgarse
Assiento-Derecho de asiento
Ship of permission-Navío de permiso

At the end of the class Paqui has given us the homework that we have to do: a scheme about all that we have learnt today.

Finally the bell has rung and we have gone to run.

Bye!

journal,24th of November, 2014 Monday

Hi! I'm Javi, and that is my Social Sciences Journal.
Today, in Soci9al Science , at first, we checked the exercice that we have to do for this morning, some activities of the page eleven, that speak about the 13 colonies of North America and the reasons of the disagree of the colonist.
Too, we have spoken about the Boston Tea Party, that it was one of the first steps of the independence and the American Revolution.
Then, Paqui spoke about the development of the American Revolution and we have copy a lot of things about the declaration of independence and later, we spoken about the first USA president, George Washington.
Before finish the class, Paqui give us a little bit of homework to do tomorrow.

                                             BOSTON TEA PARTY
                                                               Boston Tea Party
The colonist was influenced by the ideas of the enlightement, and for that, they start a revolution in Boston. 
The revolt started as a reaction of the constant tax increasing and because they weren't representation in the British Parlament.
The colonist dreesed like the native people, and abord a britanic ship in the East India to the Company of Boston arbour and throw all the charge away to the sea


                  THE BEGINING OF THE INDEPENDENCE AND THE START OF A COUNTRY

In 1775, the war between the colonist and the Brithis people start. The firsts battles took place in Lexingtong and Concord, and the colonist people was supported by the French and the Hispanic Monarchy.
The representative people met at the second intercontinental congress and took the goberment. 
The 4th of July of 1776, was declare the declaration of independence, created by Thomas Jefferson
The leader of the colonist was George Washington, that before the war, was declare the first USA presindent.                                          http://history.howstuffworks.com/historical-events/revolutionary-war-pictures.htm
In 1787, was created the USA constitution, that say that the USA was a Federal State and a Presidential Republic. Too, the constitution add 7 articles that spoke about the organization of the New State based on the politic liberalism. 
Then, in the constitiution, was added the bill of rights and 27 amenments 

Saturday, November 22, 2014

THE GIRL WITH A PEARL EARRING, VERMEER

 The Girl with a pearl earring was painted by Johannes Vermeer. The author was born in 1632 and he died in 1675 in the Low Countries. The current documentation shows that Vermeer wasn't a famous painter in his period despite now is the most representative Dutch figure of the 17th century. Probably Vermeer is famous due to his way of painting with strength in their compositions and for the use of clear and shiny colours.Vermeer represents daily life scenes in his paintings.

The Girl with a pearl earring is made up with oil in a little format (46’5 x 40 cm) painted in 1665-1667. Nowadays the painting is in the Mauritshuis museum of the Hague.
Vermeer wanted to call the attention of the people with the look of the young girl. The girl has a half-open lips which create sensuality and mystery; and her turban adds exoticism because this was an elegant and popular accessory in the 17th century. However, the principal focal point is not only the look, is the pearl which shows contrasts of light. The composition is geometrical, simple and balanced, powerful but harmonic.

We can distinguish the contrasts and the shadows, the background is darkest than the foreground because the painter used contrast of lights and colours to show the woman better and in a first ground.
The painting had, obviously, Baroque features: use of oil painting, predominance of colour over drawing, warm colours, contrasts, movement…
Nobody knows who the girl is, but there are some ideas of who can be:
-His older daughter, Maria.
-The daughter of his commissioner who had the same aspect as the girl in the painting.
-Griet, the servant.

Vermeer made more paintings like The Girl with a pearl earring: The Girl with a flute and Study of a Young Woman. The three were included in the Dissius catalogue of 1696 due to their representations.
the-girl-with-a-pearl-earring

Sources:




I have found the photos in these sources.







THE FOUNTAIN OF TREVI, NICOLA SALVI

In 1629 the Pope Urban VIII asked Bernini for renovations for the Trevi fountain but he abandoned the project when the Pope died. So, Nicola Salvi continued with the work with some ideas of Bernini, but he died in 1751 before he finished the sculpture. Finally, the Fountain of Trevi was finished in 1762 by Guissepe Pannini.
The Fountain of Trevi is the biggest (with almost 40 meter of front) and the most famous fountain in the Baroque of Rome placed on the crossing of three streets: Vía de Crocicchi, Vía Poli y Vía Delle Muratte where the Acqua Vérgine was.
The sculptor used travertine marble to build the sculpture becaus it is the material with most predominance in Rome. The dimensions are very big (25’9 meters high and 19’8 meters width). The Fountain of Trevi is represented by Neptuno in his carriage with two horses which are leaving the water where we can see two tritons. Behind the sculpture of Neptuno there is a precious façade standing out a representative figure.
Fontana de Trevi

In the Baroque, the sculptors wanted to capture fleeting moments to cause emotions, so in the Fountain of Trevi the sculptor located the sculptural scene on a fantastic waterfall sculpted in travertine marble. The sculptor wanted to represent movement; he used curved lines and cloth folds to intensify the sensation of movement. All these features corresponding to Baroque, we can see which coincide with the elements of the sculpture, the Fountain of Trevi.
The Fountain of Trevi was emptied to check the state of the monument in 2012 and finally the Rome’s mayor said that a global reformation was necessary. The reformation supposed a lot of money and finally the reformations were inaugurated in 2014. While the reformations the visitors could see the fountain, there wasn’t any problem to see it.

Fontana de Trevi


Sources:
 I have looked for in a project of a tourism degree.
For the photosà



Friday, November 21, 2014

21th November 2014, (Friday)

Hello everybody, I'm Lucía.

Like all the times, I'm late. Sorry. 
Today in the class of Social Science Paqui has been correct the presentation of our project about Baroque period. A mistake which we have commited the most part of the class is that we haven't put the tittle in the blog and Paqui have said us:
- Please, correct the titles of your posts because you write the date, but you have to written the title of the work and the author. This phrase it have been repeat like eleven times. 


Paqui has been explain the control sesion of government on Wednesday in Spain:
The executive government control judicial court of justice (independent power), judicial court of justice control legislative Parliament and the other way around. All are control by all.

We have corrected the homework that Paqui has sent us yesterday, political and economic thinking:

POLITICAL THINKING:
- Rouseau: he defended the social contract, the agreement the people and the governors sing to preserve social order. He defended the general will.
- Voltaire: he defended that the power of the king had to be limited by the Parliament,a universal tax system and religious tolerance.
- Montesquieu: he defended the division of powers into three institutions and insisted on the necessity of an independent judicial power.

ECONOMIC THINKING:
Psiquitracts considered agriculture to be the most important economic activity of a country and they supported privated property, free trade, free industry and were against any interventions of the State in conomy (economy liberanism).
- Quenay: one of the main psiocrats
- Adam Smith: pioner of the (...)

Also we have copied some words in the part of glossary of our notebook. Not many comparing with the other days.

This is all the information that we have corrected today. Also we have learnt the Enlightenned depotism:
Monarchs: decide and reform that they want
Subjects (obey)
People: like childrens they can't decide because they are ignorant and don't know what is convenient for them. Now in Spain, we are subjects.

Then Paqui has sent the homework to the weekend: the sumary of Enlightened depotism.

See you on Tuesday, bye!






Thursday, November 20, 2014

Martyrdom of Saint Philip, RIBERA.

The Martyrdom of Saint Philip is a painting made by José de Ribera. This painting was painted in Nápoles, Italia in 1639. It isn't certain but is thought that the painting was commissioned by Philip IV.
The size of the Martyrdom of Saint Philip  is 234cm x 234cm and the material José de Ribera used to do the painting wasoil over canvas. At the moment the painting is in El Prado Museum, Madrid.



José de Ribera used the oil as a technique. This painting represent the preparations for the martyrdom of the saint. The saint is hanging on a strong and big piece of wood and around him there are some mans who one of them is holding his legs and the others are pulling the ropes. On the right side there is a group of people who are looking at the scene and talking about it and on the left side there is a group of people who don't undestand what happening.
In this painting the dark colours predominate although there are some light colours. Most of the light is concentrate in the saint and in the upper part of the painting. The Martyrdom of Saint Philip symbolyze the dramatic quality.

Their main features are oil painting, predominance of colour over drawing, contrast of light and realism.

The most outstanding by José de Ribera was that he created a natural style. 

    


BIBLIOGRAPHY:




The Surrender of Breda, Velázquez. Nuria Iniesta

The Surrender of Breda, Diego Velázquez.

It was completed during the years 1634–1635, inspired by Velázquez's visit to Italy with Ambrogio Spinola, the Genoese general who conquered Breda on June 5th of 1625.

This painting was a assignment to Velázquez from Philip IV. In the early 1630s, a massive project to build and decorate a new palace for Philip IV was underway outside of Madrid.


Philip IV


Called Buen Retiro, the palace was intended as a retreat for the king and his court. In addition to the temporary spectacles that were there, Buen Retiro came to house a big collection of art by some of the greatest painters of 17th century in Spain.



Drawing of the Buen Retiro Palace



http://ep00.epimg.net/ccaa/imagenes/2013/10/21/madrid/1382381507_853821_1382383386_noticia_normal.jpg

Among the works commissioned for the palace was a series of twelve paintings for the Hall of Realms, where royal audiences and other ceremonies took place. The paintings, by different artists, depicted recent Spanish victories.

Technical data:
  • Type: Oil on canvas. 
  • Dimensions: 307 cm x 367 cm (121 in x 144 in). 
  • Location: Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. 

The Surrender of Breda commemorates the capture of the city of Breda during the Eighty Years’ War, a conflict between Spain, which controlled the Low Countries, and the Dutch, who were fighting for political independence.

This painting is a perfect representation of the collection of atmospheric and chromatic light.








This painting shows the third day after the battle between Spain and the Netherlands. The work is not focused on the battle itself, but rather in the reconciliation. That’s why both armies, the Spanish on the right and the Dutch on the left, although days before were killing each other in battle, here they share a peaceful atmosphere, which contrasts with the smoke coming up from fires at the background.

The canvas is divided into five horizontal bands, which are the foreground, the area of activity and focus, a view of Breda in the distance, the countryside and the blue sky and horizon. The horizon is very high, and represents the threatening atmosphere there is due to the conflict between the Spanish and the Breda peoples. All bands except for the one with the two peoples are painted in rather muted and dark colors to represent the sadness and tension of the Breda militaries. A line of vertical spears behind the Spanish is balanced by the Dutch weapons being closer to the left to show a diagonal approach of the Spanish. At the main focus the commander of the Dutch army, Justin Nassau, gives the keys of the city to Spinola. The key represents the key of the painting as a whole, locking all other components into place. On the right is the tilted flag, and below the horse's legs, the document of surrender is in the lowest right. On Nassau, his white ruff and sleeves represent surrender of his town. The whole picture represents Velazquez's attempt to snapshot what actually happened, showing how one officer is staring at the viewers and another is gazing at the distant sky. He did this to make the viewers believe that the painting was an actual capture of what happened during the capture of Breda.


Details of The Surrender of Breda.








Traditional scenes of surrender in early modern Europe, generally the winner was showed raised above the vanquished.

In this painting we can recognize different features of the Baroque style, like: movement, use of olil painting, predominance of colour over drawing, use of warm colours, contract of light and shadow, complex compositions in order to shock the curdience (asymmetry, curved lines), realism in representations…

Diego Velázquez

He was a Spanish painter who was the main artist in the court of King Philip IV and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary Baroque period, important as a portrait artist.




http://www.nndb.com/people/913/000071700/velazquez-sm.jpg

Velázquez is often cited as a key influence on the art of Édouard Manet, important when considering that Manet is often considered the bridge between realism and impressionism.



Édouard Manet.


The importance of Velázquez's art even today is evident, considering the respect with which 20th century painters consider his work.

Pablo Picasso presented a homage to Velázquez in 1957 when he recreated Las Meninas in 58 variations, in his characteristically cubist form.






Salvador Dalí, created in 1958 a work entitled Velázquez Painting the Infanta Margarita With the Lights and Shadows of His Own Glory. The color scheme shows Dalí's serious tribute to Velázquez.




The Anglo-Irish painter Francis Bacon found Velázquez's portrait of Pope Innocent X to be one of the greatest portraits ever made. He created several expressionist variations of this piece in the 1950s. One such famous variation, entitled Figure with Meat (1954), shows the pope between two halves of a bisected cow.

Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini

Apollo and Daphne

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

It was a sculture made  by the Italian Gian Lorenzo Bernini between 1622 and 1625, this artistic work is displayed in Rome, in the Gallería Borghese, to be specific.




Bernini was born in Nápoles, on the 7th of December, in 1598, and he died in Rome, on the 24th of November, in 1680.
He was a fantastic sculptor, painter and architect in the Barroque period who stood because he could capture the dramatic feelings and the motion really well, as we can see in the Apollo and Daphne sculpture


The work is 243 cm high and it’s made up of marble.
The work speak about the myth that it’s in the name of the sculpture, Apollo and Daphne, that is part of the Greek mythology, always in art, the most important part that you have to look for is the story that there are behind the work.  

A greek love
The myth starts when Apollo challenged  to Eros with the bow. Eros feel cross, so he threw a golden arrow to Apollo, that caused an instant fall in love, and the woman that he wanted was Daphne, who was injured by the lead arrow, that caused the opposite effect.
One day, Apollo saw Daphne and pursued her, and she escaped as fast as possible until she arrived to her father, the Peneus river, who transformed her into a laurel.
Apollo, when he saw her, hung the woman that was transforming, cried, and said: ‘’You can’t be my woman, you will be my favorite tree, your leaves will always be green and will crown all the people’s heads as victory symbol.’’




In this sculpture, Bernini tried to represent the motion and the dramatic feelings of the moment.

If you round the Bernini’s work, you can find  the back of Daphne  transforming into a three, just where Apollo is touching her, and in the front, Dafne has the form of a woman, this image capture the feeling of anxiety  of Apollo when he saw his love transform into a three, but he continued to be in love






Photo sources
Information sources

Fco.Javier Martín-Pueblas Pérez-bustos 4ºB  ''Apollo and Daphne''

Judith Beheading Holofernes, Caravaggio





Judith Beheading Holofernes was painted in 1598-99 by Caravaggio in the studio of his father. Now this painting is on the  Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica at Palazzo Barberini, in Rome.


Bild-Ottavio Leoni, Caravaggio.jpg
Caravaggio
This painting is 144 cm x 195 cm. It shows a dead general (Holofernes) beheaded by Judith, the woman who seduced him in less than one night. This painting provoked reactions of horror and surprise to the visitors from its first headquarters, as Caravaggio managed to give the work of great realism and rawness. Juditt is shown standing majestic and unmoved, while her maid, who gives her the sword, is nervous and waiting for what might happen.

Judith Beheading Holofernes by Caravaggio.jpg
Judith Beheading Holofernes

It has a Baroque style. The Baroque is often thought of as period or artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe.

The beheading of Holofernes was a favourite subject of the age, depicted by such names as Donatello, Sandro Botticelli, Andrea Mantegna, Giorgione, Artemisia Gentileschi, and Lucas Cranach the Elder, among many others. Caravaggio's approach was, typically, to choose the moment of greatest dramatic impact, the moment of the decapitation itself.

Sources:

- http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judit_y_Holofernes_%28Caravaggio%29
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_Beheading_Holofernes_%28Caravaggio%29
- http://www.artecreha.com/Iconograf%C3%ADa/judith-y-holofernes.html
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baroque
- https://www.google.es/imghp?hl=es&tab=wi&ei=NzZuVMGGE4mgyQSmjIL4Bg&ved=0CAQQqi4oAg





THE NIGHT WATCH, REMBRANDT

The Night Watch

Rembrandt van Rijn

The Night Watch is a painting made by Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn in 1642. It was painted with oil painting on canvas. Its sizes are 363 x 437 cm. Rembrandt  received the commission to paint The Night Watch for the Kloveniersdoelen, the guild hall that housed the Amsterdam civic guard company of musketeers. 

The work shows Captain Frans Banning Cocq and his lieutenant, Willem van Ruytenburgh, surrounded by sixteen of their men, other people were added later.




It is present in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. In 1715 it was cut to make it smaller, we can know its real sizes because there are some copies of the painting. It has also suffered different vandalism attacks but it has been successfully restored. 

Original sizes of the painting
Rembrandt didn’t use a single painting technique, as we can see in The Night Watch, there are elements worked in detail while others seem to be painted quickly. Rembrandt used chiaroscuro’s technique in his paintings with its emphasis on the mysterious, evocative qualities of shadow.

Here we can see some features of this painting:


The Night Watch’s action wasn’t happening during the night and so that wasn’t its original title. When the critics and the public attached that word to the painting, the canvas had become very darkened by dirt and layers of varnish and it seemed to be at night. Its original title was Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenhurch.

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