Thursday, December 18, 2014

Thursday, 18th December 2014

Hello classmates, I'm Sara and today has been the last class of Social Sciences of the year so, I'm writing the last journal of this year!!!!!!!!

Today in the class of Social Sciences we have started correcting the scheme we have to do, a summary about the Radical Stage: Girondist Convention (1792-1793) and Jacobin Convention (1793-1794) known as the Reign of Terror.

  • The Girondist got the majority between 1792-1793. They faced Louis XV'I trial and a foreign evasion. They represented the commercial bourgeoisie. 
  • The Jacobin Convention gave the executive power to the Communities of Public safety (9 members first, 12 members after)
Then, the caretaker has come to the class to give us a letter about tomorrow. The letter said that we have to stay on the High School until 12 o'clock and we will have some activities to choose or something like this after the chocolate with fritters. 

After talking about tomorrow Paqui has explained the Reign of Terror. She has said that liberties were suspended and the Comittee of General Security was in charge of chasing and judging the suspected counter- revolutionaries and all the people considered a threat to national security. This is the process or definition of Reign of Terror, which had started during the Girondist Convention. Paqui also has said that they didn't have election to choose because if they used the violence means that they were equeal to who used the violence before, the superiors. So, 16.000 people were guillotined in nine months. With the explanation of this Reign Paqui has said a sentence about this bad period : "It's dreadful, but necessary" (Journal d'autre monde 1794). They know that it was bad and dangerous for their lifes but they couldn't do anything different. 


For the end of the class, we have looked the French Republican Calendar. The name of the days, the months,etc are so curious: 

  1. primidi 
  2. duodi 
  3. tridi 
  4. quartidi 
  5. quintidi 
  6. sextidi 
  7. septidi 
  8. octidi 
  9. nonidi 
  10. décadi 
We also have seen the revolutionary calendar : The Catholic Church used a calendar of Saints, which named each day of the year after an associated saint. 
My saint is on 13th July, so in this calendar my saint corresponds to "Pintade (Guinea fowl)"

I hope that all of you have good marks and results of the term and nothing more, only Merry Christmas and a happy new year!! 
See you the next year, bye ;)

new year wallpaper
Source :

FRIDAY,18th December 2014

Today was the last day of class of Social Science of the year.
Today we have done a lot of things.
Paqui has made a black board to draw some things, and She had  drew a house and next to the house has drew Jose Luis saying Oh my guinness! with a bear in his hand, it has been too fun. The teacher Guillermo have whent to our class to had stick next to the door. Then paqui has said to him to has drew something and he has wrotte 'tecnologye' and then Paqui has corrected it. Then she explain the situation of Cuba, Abaut the cold war, the president of Cuba Fidel Castro, The USSR had missiles in Cuba,USA blockade Cuba and The consecuence Cuba had of this, The couldn't had all products they needed. Then a fire arrile has started we has to whent aut. Paqui, Cristina and melost the other partners, then in the back of the high school we have met with them, Then we have retouned to the class we take our things.

And this is an smal drawing I have done of th Cuba's situation.
And this is all for today have a nice Holidays!

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Tuesday, 16th December 2014

Hi everybody!

Today in the class of Social Sciences has been very interesting because we have made a lot of things. First of all we have corrected questions eight and nine from page 22, I have corrected the first one and Minerva has corrected the last one. Then we have copied a scheme from the blackboard of the second part (Radical stage) of the first scheme that we have copied of point 1: Stages of the French Revolution. Paqui has explained us some theory about this point and when we were talking about the Louis XVI’s trial and execution, Paqui has also explained us the origin of the word guillotine. The machine was invented in England, but its use was proposed in France by Dr. Guillotin , who defended the use of this machine because it caused a faster and a “more human” death, without suffering. That’s why there were so many people condemned to die executed by guillotine, this method continued to be used until the last century. Apart from this, we have also talked about another method: The Garotte (Garrote vil), but it was a worse method because the people condemned to die by this method, suffered a lot, so they prolonged their death throes.

At the middle of the class Paqui has asked us if we are agree with the death penalty, in the class there were two points of view, some classmates have said that people who kill another people have to die and other classmates have said that this people can have a second opportunity and that they can change their mind. Well, at first I agreed with the first point of view but Paqui has explained me very well with an example that I couldn’t kill another person in cold blood, and that killing people (even if they are murderers) only converts me in the same as they, a murderer. Paqui has also said that I have to be superior to them in that aspect because responding with violence, only cause more violence. So, I think that I have changed my way of thinking about this theme.

Today I have learned that for example the Girondists defended freedom and private property and they wanted to export the revolution, on the contrary of the Jacobins, who wanted to consolidate the revolution in France, but they had a thing in common, they were Republicans.And some examples of the main representative persons of the Girondist were: Ducos, Brissot… I have also learned that the Republic was proclaimed when the people of Paris discovered Louis XVI’s conspiracy (he contacted with other absolute monarchs to recover his power) and they stormed the Tuileries Palace (10th August 1792)

Finally Paqui has given us the final mark of the assessment. I have a 9 and I’m very happy with my mark and nobody has failed in our class.

For homework we have to complete the scheme we have copied from the blackboard.

We have copied some words on the glossary:

To deceive: Decepcionar
Monarchist: Monárquico
Guillotine: Guillotina
Axe: Hacha
Death penalty: Pena de muerte
To hang: Ahorcar
Sentence for life: cadena perpetua
Trial: Juicio
Scapegoat: Chivo expiatorio

See you!!

Monday, 15th December 2014

Hello everybody!!

First of all, I want to apologise for not have written the journal yesterday. I completely forgot about it, because yesterday I had an exam in the corsevatory that lasted two hours, and I want the forgiveness from all of my classmates and from Paqui too. And after this apology, I'm going to write my third journal in the blog.

Yesterday, when we arrived to class, the first thing that we did was check and see our exams. I had a 8.75 in this exam. I liked my mark, it was better than in the first exam, but I know I can do more. And then, after revising our exams and talk a little about them, Paqui collected them back and gave to us our notebooks. I had a 7 in my notebook mark. That was so low for me and I decided that the next term I have to require more myself because I can do the things much better. After talking about our marks and our califications, we asked Paqui if she was going to say the final marks of the term, but she said that she would give them the next day, meaning today. Then, we saw a video of a very particular History teacher from the US called Tom Richey.This teacher makes videos explaining different periods of History, and he has made some videos explaining the French Revolution and all its phases. Although, he has made videos from other periods of history, for example on his YouTube Channel you can find a video about "The Thirty Years' War", other about "Mercantilism", another about Martin Luther King, etc. In the video that Paqui put in class he talked about the National Assembly, which was created in June 17th, 1789 after the Estates General. He explains so well and ofers learning in a different way as the one we are used to. When the video finished, we started correcting some exercises of the Moderate Stage of the French Revolution, the first of their stages, which was divided into the National Constituent Assembly and the National Legislative Assembly. But we didn't have time to correct all of them and we have finished correcting them today.

I attach this image for you because I like how it explains all the Stages of the French Revolution in spite of we haven't studied all of them yet.

I hope everyone is agree with their mark and have had a good term.
Bye, and merry christmas!!

Tuesday, 16th of December

Hello everybody!

Today in the Social Sciences class', at first Paqui has given the notebooks with the marks and corrections of them and then the exams of Unit 2, and we have seen the mistakes. After that, the teacher has said the final mark of the term and the people who has failed the term, have put the make up exam. Later, Paqui has written in the blackboard the correct answer of the exercises. Afterwards, the first exercise, has corrected by Débora, about The Summer of 1789 and the reasons of why the Ancien Régime disappear. The next exercise, has corrected by Amalia, about the most important decisions of the National Constituent Assembly and the Legislative Assembly.

The glossary that have copied today are: 
pompous - pomposo
August Decrees - Decretos de Agosto
sentence for life - cadena perpetua

Finally, some sources to explain the French Revolution:



Saturday, December 13, 2014

Some videos about the French Revolution

I've found some videos from a USA History teacher, which explain some aspects of the French Revolution. Here you have them: 

- The situation in France before the French Revolution:


 - The call of the Estates Géneral:

- The National Assembly:

- The Civil Constitution of the Clergy:

Friday, December 12, 2014

Friday, 12th of december of 2014

Hello everyone!
Today in the social sciences' lesson Paqui has collected our notebooks, because she's going to corrected them for the term's marks. After we have started the lesson. Today has been the day after the exam, but Paqui hasn't correct them because she didn't have enough time to correct.
In the class we have studied the beggining of the French Revolution and it causes.
We have sawn the privileged protested since 1614. 
Afterwards we have learned the Meeting of the States, in 1789. This means that the king gave only double representation to the Third State and the Third State representatives complained and the king closed the States. In the scheme of the begining of the revolution, we have summarized the contens. We have copied that the representatives of the Third State, some nobles and members of the clergy met in the Tennis Court. In the Tennis Court Oath there were the representatives of France and theyswore that they would write a constitution. The king let the National content Assembly continue to work as a way of gaining time. In class we have read a text in the book, and Jose Luis have had to read, and he have made some funny jokes. Also we have copied some words on the glossary:

-To storm:Asaltar
-Manor:Casa solariega(house of a noblemen in the countryside)
-Seigneurial rights:Derechos señoriales

And this was our social sciences' class today.

The tennis court. Source:

Thursday, December 11, 2014

Thursday 11th December 2014


Today in the class of social sciences we have done the last exam of the term (curiously I have written the two exam journals). The exam consists of the 18th century and it had 6 questions for the people who failed the Baroque art project and 5 questions for the people who passed this projects.

As I have passed the projects, I only had to answer 5 questions, and all the exams questions were the following:

1. Baroque art.

2. Match some important people of the 18th century with some importants things they did.

3. Define the Ancien Régime and its features.

4. All what you know about Enlightenment (definition, features and two enlightened philosophers and what they thinked).

5. This question consists of 4 different terms and we have to choose two of them and say all what we know about them. I have chosen options A and C.

6. In this question we also have to choose some terms to define (we have to choose 4 of the 6 that were written in the exam sheet). In this moment I don't remember all the terms I have chosen, but they were easy.

To end this journal, my impresions about the exam are good, I think I will obtain a good mark and I'm very happy because the term has finished. Paqui and us are going to have an expected holidays.

Thursday, 11th of December 2014.

Hello everybody! I'm Nuria and this is my third journal of the year.

Today in the class of Social Sciences we have done the exam of Unit 2: The 18th century. We have done the exam at the first period of the day.
The exam had 6 questions:
  1. This question was for the people who failed the project of Baroque art, so I didn't do it.
  2. In this question, we have to match famous characters  of the 18th century with the things that they have done. For example: George Washington - First president of USA. Denis Diderot     D' Alambert - he created the encyclopedia. Archiduke Charles of Austria - Candidate to the Spanish throne.
  3. Definition of the Ancient Régime and its main features.
  4. Definition of Enlightenment, its main features and choose 2 enlightened philosophers and say all we know about them. I have chosen Voltarie and Montesquieu.
  5. In this question we had 4 themes, and we had to choose 2 and say all we know about them. The 4 themes were: The War of Spanish Sucession, the reforms made by Charles III, the Constitution of the United States and the Independence of the 13 colonies. I have chosen the reforms of Charles III and the Independence of the 13 colonies.
  6. This was the last question, and we had 6 different concepts and we had to choose 4 of them. The concepts were: Rationalism, the encyclopedia, Nueva Planta decrees, physiocracy, Enlightened despotism and the Boston Tea Party. In this question I have chosen Nueva Planta decrees, physiocracy, Enlightened despotism and the Boston Tea Party.
I'm very happy because this exam was the last of the term! In my opinion the exam wasn't very difficult, but it was really long. I think that I'll pass the exam.

Tuesday, December 9, 2014

9th December of 2014 ( tuesday )


I am José Luis and this is my journal :

Today is Tuesday so we have started the lesson at the 2th period ant Paqui started send silence to the class , because Gustavo is spoke a lot.

Paqui started new unit : French Revoloution , restation and the lineral revolutions .
Paqui has said that is the unit more difficult of the 2 term. The unit has 5 point very long.

The unit is formed by 5 points :

- The Frecnh Revolution and the Napoleonic Era.
- The Congress of Vienna and restatonism
- The Revolutionary ideologies ( liberalism and nationalism )
- The three revolutionary waves of 1820 , 1830 , 1848
- Spain from the French revolution to the consolidation of a liberal state

Paqui explained a lot of thing: We have started new point the point 1 , it is formed :

- Causes of Begginning of the french era
- Stages:
  - Moderate stage ( 1789 - 1792 )
 -  Radical stage ( 1792 - 1794 )
 - Retum to conservation ( 1794 - 1799 )
-  The Napoleonic Era ( 1799 - 1815 )

We have reading the two pages of the new unit and Paqui explained the pages after we reading . We have reading :

Louis XVI
Call of the estates general

The glossary of the class is :

Bad harvest : cosecha
Grievances . quejas
Book of grievances : Libro de quejas


                          Source :

       This video explain very well the Frecnh Revolution :

Tuesday, 9th of December

Today, in Social Sciences class we habe review the scheme that Paqui has written the last class:
Stages of the French Revolution:

  • Moderate Stage is divided into the National Constcuntent Assembly (1789-1791) and the National legislative Assembly (1791-1792)
  • Radical Stage is divided into Girandist Convention (11792-1793) and Jacobin Convention (1793-1794)  and that form the Reign of Terror.
  • Thermidorian reaction (conservative stage), Directory (1794-1799)
  • Napoleonic Era (1799-1815)
Then, Paqui has written a small scheme about the first point of the other scheme. We have started the presentation about the French Rrevolution and the Napoleonic Era. The causes of the Revolution were:
-Economic crisis.
-Financial crisis.
-Discontent of the bourgeois.
-Included of the ideas of Enlightenment.
The call of the estates general:
The priviledged demanded the call of the Estates general to discuss the tax reform. The Estates General hadn´t been called since 1614. Before the meeting, the demands of the differents estates were collected in books of grievances. We also have seen the End of the Ancient Régime the 4th of August of 1789. The national Contituent Assembly published the Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Critizen. Abolished feudalism. These two documents meant the end of the Ancien Régime in France.The Constituent Assembly inspired on the principles of political liberanism:
-Constitutional Monarchy.
-Division of powers.
-Census suffrage.
-Veto power for the king.
We also have seen the Flight to Varannes in which Louis XVI try to flee to Austria but he was caught  at Varannes and was send back to París. There were two different types of political factions:

  • Constitutional Monarchists: The most important political factions were: Barvane, Lameth and La Fayette.
  • Republicans: Here we can differenciate two types: Girondists:Vergniaud, Brissot and Ducos; and the Jacobins: Robespierre, Danton and Saint Just.
We have speaked about Sans Culottes that were a grupo of workers who supported the most radical reforms. They didn´t wear the fashionable culottes, but pantalons.
To finish, we have seen the end of the Monarchy, the Democratic Republic, the National convention, the Louis XVI´s trial and execution and the Jacobin Convention.We have added to the glossary new words like: 
  • Censun suffrage (sufragio censitario)
  • Unniversal suffrage (sufragio universal)
  • In instantments (en plazo)
  • To sell at auction (en subasta)
  • Guilg (gremimo)
  • Flight (fuga)
  • Girondist (Girondino)
  • Jacobin (Jacobino)
  • Sams Culottes (sin calzones)
  • Brother in law (cuñado)
We have defined the Censun suffrage, only those who have a certain levelof weath have the right vote.
To finish the class, Paqui has said to us to do exercises 6,7,8 and 9 of page 22.

And remember, we have to give our notebooks to paqui on Thuersday, the same day as the exam!!!!

Finally, I attached one photo about Sans Coulottes: 


Saturday, December 6, 2014

Thursday 4th December 2014

Good afternoon to everybody! I know that is Saturday but my computer doesn't work so I couldn't do it until today well I'm sorry.
On Thursday's lesson we corrected the activities that Paqui had given  us on Tuesday. The activities were about The causes of the French Revolution, why Louis the XVI decided to call the Estates general and what important events took place in the summer of 1789 and why  the Ancien Régine disappear in France after these events. Paqui explained  us  point A about the French Revolution. She did a scheme about the Stages of the French Revolution, the point B about the Frenche Revolution. The stages were:
-Moderate stage.
-Radical stage.
-Thermidorian reaction.
-Napoleonic Era.
We also added some new words to the glossary such as:
Reluctantly= a regañadientes, a la fuerza.
To dissolve= disolver.
By force= por la fuerza.
Storming= asalto.
Great Fear= gran miedo
At the end of the lesson she gave us homework to us we have to read the points A and B on pages 14-15 and look up for all the new words.
It was an interesting class about Louis XVI and The French revolution but Paqui, like always,  got angry with us because we talk a lot.


Presentations for Unit 3

Here you have the presentations we're going to use in this unit: 

- The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era

- The Congress of Vienna and Restoration

- The Crisis of the Ancien Régime in Spain

- Spain from Restoration to liberalism: 

Friday, December 5, 2014

5th of December 2014

Today in social sciences we started the class correcting the squeme that we had for homework. This squeme was about the Charles III´s enlightened reforimism.
 At firts there was the "Beginning of his reign":
The Esquilache riots that was a revolt of the privileged to instigate the people to revolt against Esquilache.
The consequences are: He fired his ministers and from then on he only hired spanish ministers. But this didn´t stop the reforms. He also expelled the Jesuits from Spain.
Then we have the "Reforms":
Educational reforms, like: Creation of the primary schools.
Economic reforms, like: Colonisations of new lands, liberalization of the prices of wheat.
Other reforms: Decree declaring the honesty of all professions, reinforcement of the king´s authority over the church.
The consequences of the reforms: A positive effect in demography and economy, population increased but the mayority of the people continued to be poor. An agrarian reform was needed but the country and the king didn´t have this in mind.
After corrected this Paqui said us that we have to copy the last part of the squeme from a text in the white board:
"When Charles III died, his son Charles IV became the new king. He was not gifted to rule and Charles III adviced him to keep the counts of Aranda and Floridablanca as ministers.
His rule was conditioned by the French revolutionaries"
We commented this in class and the teacher said us that this king was not the indicated one to reign. And also we commented the great seemed with Juan Carlos I, look:

Then we start to comment things of the hispanic economy of now. Things like there were people that didn´t had to work to live with a lot of money. Like the Duchess of Alba (Jose Luis understood that the traduction of "Duchess of Alba" was "Ducha de Alba"). And we also talked about the piratery of the films and series.
And the glossary words of today are:
-The best fitted:el mejor adaptado.
-Tariff: aranceles.
-Custom union: unión aduanera.
-Duches of Alba: Duquesa de Alba.
-Gifted to: dotada para.

Thursday, December 4, 2014

4th of December 2014

Today in the class of Social Sciences....

At first, the teacher Paqui which students have failed the proyects of the Baroque Art and she said that the proyects that for checking.

Then the teacher has said that we had to check the activities of the other day, 19 and 20, Lucia and Jose María have corrected the exercises, respectively.

Then the teacher has explained the Ferdinand VI's reign, he modernized the navy and the control of the Indies. We have spoken too, about the Charles III's reign, of the Esquilache Riots ( the privileged instigated the people's revolt using the new hygine and public orden ordinanzes as pretext. We have seen some photos of this. Charles III dimissed Esquilache and expelled the Jesuits, ( they have been accused of having participated in the riots) but he went an with reforms.

Then we have defined regalism which waa a  reinforcement of the power of the monarchs over the Church, imposing their authority over religious orders and the herarchy of the Church.

Then we have spoked about the Jesuits: their obedience to the Pope was seen as a  to the absolute power of kings. That's why they were expelled from countries. The teacher have recommended the film of the Mission, about the defense of the Jesuits of the indigenous peoples of the Indies. They have to obey 4 vows , charity, poverty and and direct obedience to the Pope.

Then we have copied a scheme of Charles III. And then the teacher Paqui have said thaht we had to finish the scheme in class

Here, I post some vocabulary, that we have copied:

-To instigate:instigar, azuzar

-Society of Jesus: Compañía de Jesús

-Escape valve:válvula de escape

-To fire: despedir

-Resign: dimitir

-Threat: amenaza

-To threaten: amenazar

Portrait of Charles III                                                                 Portrait of Ferdinand VI


Goodbye !


Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Tuesday, 2nd of December.

Hi everybody!

Today in the class we have started finishing correcting the scheme of the Enlightened Reformation about the Charles III reforms and we have seen them in the presentation.

-Expulsion of the Jesuits
-Colonization of new lands. Paqui has explained us that Charles III colonized some territories around Sierra Morena, that means that he started cultivating there.
-Limitation of the Mesta privileges.
-He supported the economic development.
-He made educational reforms.
-He declared honesty to all the professions.
-Reports on the agrarian reform.
-Free trade with the Indies.
-Liberalization of the price of wheat.

We've learnt too that when Charles III died, his son Charles IV became the new king. His father adviced him too keep Aranda and Floridablanca as ministers. But his rule was conditioned by the French Revolution.

With that we've finished the Unit 2 and we have started with the Unit 3: The French Revolution and Restoration. The main parts of this unit are:

1. The French Revolution.
2. The Congress of Vienna and restoration.
3. The revolutionary ideologies: nationalism and liberalism.
4. The revolutionary waves of 1820, 1830 and 1848.
5. Spain during the French Revolution and restoration.

Also Paqui has told us some homeworks for tomorrow: we have to read until the Constitutional Monarchy and we have to do the exercices 1-5 on page 22.

The words for the journal are:

-Mesta: association of stockbreaders which defended and promoted their activity.
-Tariff: arancel.
-Report: reforma.
-Proffesional school: instituto de formación profesional.
-Tennis court oath: juramento del juego de pelota.
-Estates General: Estados Generales (cortes in France).
-Books of grievences: cuadernos de quejas.

Bye, see you in class!

2nd December (Tuesday).

Hi, It's me again!
 I'm going to tell you what I have done today in social sciences lesson. At  first we have corrected the homework: A scheme about the War of Spanish Succession, the main causes of that were that as Charles II died without direct descendants in his testament and he appointed Philip of Anjou as king but other European countries didn't like this idea because of the French Absolutism and they proposed another candidate to the throne: Archduke Charles of Austria. In the peninsula Castile supported Philip and Aragón supported the archduke Charles
The development of the war was the following:

  • There were equal forces for both sides 
  • In 1705 The British invaded Gibraltar and Minorca
  • In 1707 the French Castilian Army defeated those who opposed the archduke Charles in Almansa
  • In 1713 The archduke Charles became emperor and fearing Austria´s reinforcement, the European powers looked for an agreement to end the war and they signed the treaty of Utrecht.
  • The war continued in Catalonia until 1714, when Barcelona was bombed by Philip v´s order. finally they surrendered 

Battle of Almansa 

Later we have spoken about the king Philip V, who abdicated in his son Louis I, but later he had to come back again to the government because his son died.
We have spoken also about other kings as Ferdinand VI, who became crazy after the death of his wife and who tried to impose a unique tax depending on the properties that the people had. In Valencia that was called equivalente, in Catalonia Cadastre and in Aragón única contribuciónIn order to try to impose this tax in Castile, the Marquis of Ensenada ordered a big survey. The Ensenada cadastre was a survey that contains a lot of information about the properties in Castile.
Finally Paqui has read us some quotes from a book called ''Las anécdotas de los Borbones''about Philip V and Ferdinand VI. And she has explained us that when Charles III came from Italy to reign, he changed the wearing customs of that ages , and in a museum there is a portrait of Philip V upside down because the people of that place didn't like him , because he ordered to burn the city during the War of Spanish Succession

We have copied some vocabulary :
Report card: Boletín de notas 
Upside down : boca abajo 
Brim: ala del sombrero
Cloack: capa
                                                      Philip V's painting in the Xativa museum

Monday, December 1, 2014

Monday, 1st of December

Good afternoon everybody!
Today in Social Sciences we have done a lot of things and we have learnt a lot.
As always, at first, we have started speaking until Paqui has said: Stop talking please!!
Then, the lesson has started. Firstly Paqui has started speaking us about the scheme of the Bourbons and she has remembered us the content about Philip V and Ferdinand VI.
Paqui has remembered us also Philip V's main decisions and his political system:
- Nueva Planta Decrees.
- The Catilian institutions were extended to all the territory.
- Kings were helped by secretaries and councils.
- The division of the territory into provinces.
- The creation of intendants to collect taxes. They were an institution imported from France.
Paqui has said that he was married twice, and we have spoken also about his personal crises. Due to these crises he abdicated and his son Louis I became king, who reigned only for six months because he died of smallpox.

Philip V                                                                                                                          Ferdinand VI

Paqui has explained us what the cadastre was.
- The cadastre: it was a tax imposed in Catalonia related to the properties everybody had. Everybody had to pay for their properties, including the privileged. It had different names inside the Crown of Aragón. For example, in Valencia it was called "equivalente". But the privileged people of Castile didn't want to pay this tax.
There was another type of cadastre:
- The Marquis of Ensenada, Ferdinand VI's minister, wanted to impose this tax also in Castile and he prepared a big survey to know the properties of the population with the purpose of establishing a unique tax in Castile. Finally the tax wasn't imposed due to the protests of the privileged.

After this, we have started to speak about the TV programm Isabel. Paqui has told us that in today's chapter, Isabelle dies. And she has said that the next TV programm is about Charles I.

Later we have started with the Enlightened despotism. Paqui has started saying us that Aranda, Floridablanca were enlightened ministers and Charles III was an enlightened despot. Paqui has also explained us also the Esquilache riots, which appeared at the beginning of Charles III's reign. The privileged instigated the people's revolt using the new hygiene and public order ordinances as as a pretext. 
Charles made some reforms in order to prevent crime and illnesses.
- In order to prevent crime: they ordered to cut brims and cloaks.

- In order to prevent illnesses: they established very strict hygiene rules:
     - Price of wheat had been liberalized damaging speculators.
     - Privileged were afraid of Esquilache's reforms.
Charles III expelled the Jesuits because he accused them of having participated in the riots.
Absolute monarchs didn't like the Jesuits because they didn't obey them. They only obeid the Pope and the Church.
After this, we have started to speak about the reforms of the Enlightened monarchs:
- Educational.
- Administrative.
- Economic.

Finally, Paqui has written a scheme on the blackboard about the second part about the Enlightened despotism scheme.

During our lesson, today we have copied a lot of things in our glossary:
- Navy: armada
- Half brother: hermanastro
- Schillaci: Esquilache
- Wheat: trigo
- Brim: ala del sombrero
- Long cloak: capa larga
- Esquilache riots: motín de Esquilache
- To dimiss/ to fire: echar, despedir
- Jesuits/ Society of Jesus: jesuitas o compañía de Jesús
- To instigate: instigar, empujar a alguien a hacer algo

Pictures' sources:
Philip V
Ferdinand VI
Brims and cloacks

Saturday, November 29, 2014

28th of November (Friday)

Hello Everybody!

Today I'm going to write the journal.

In the class of Social Sciences we have been copying some notes in our notebook. We have copied a serie of dates related to the 18th century in the U.S.A. and Spain:

-1775: The Battle of Lexington and Concord
-1776: 2nd congress of Philadelphia --> Declaration of the Independence
-1777: Battle of Saratoga
-1781: Battle of Yorktown. Colonist supported by France and Spain
-1783: Treaty of Versailles --> U.S.A.
-1791: 10 first amendments (Bill of Rights). The constitution has been amended 27 times.

She has explained why was a Federal and Presidentialist Republic:

-It was Federal: it was divided into states that have a lot of powers: own laws, police, education system, courts of justice...
- It was Presidentialist: the president holds wide powers.
- It was a Republic: because he was elected by the people.

The federal government had:
- Foreign affairs
- Economic Policy
- Currency
- Defense.

We also have started the point 4 that is divided in:
A) War of Spanish Succession
B) Centralized Absolutism: Philip V and Ferdinand VI
C) Enlightened Reformism: Charles III

We have copied an scheme to develope about War of Spanish succession that has to include:

We have to do it for homework.

Here I put you a Photo about the War of Spanish Succession. Bye!!

Friday, November 28, 2014

27th of November (Thursday)

Hello everybody! I'm Gustavo and I write the journal today.

We have started the class correcting some exercises about the reasons of discontent of North American colonist against the English goverment, the Boston Tea Party, the Independence War of the U.S.A, the ideas of the first written constitution of history and the causes and development of the War of Spanish Succession.
I have all this exercises well done, exept the last, because I had written too little.

Flag of USA

During the class we have copied some words in the glossary like everyday:
-Happenine- Artistic Personmance
-Truck- Camión
-Spark- Chispa
-Trigger for 5th- Detonante de...
-Unalienable- Inalienable
-Sript- Guión
-Premiére- Estreno
-To amend- Corregir, cambiar una ley
-Amendment- Enmienda
-Prohibition- Ley Seca


Thursday, November 27, 2014

Thursday, 27th of November.

Hello everyone! I am Minerva. 

Today in Social Sciences we have done a lot of things. 

At first, we have corrected the summary we had to do for today. It was about the War of the Spanish Succession. María has read the causes which caused this war; as Charles II died without successors, he left his kingdoms to Philip of Anjou who was Louis XIV's grandson. But some countries (Austria, the Low Countries, Portugal, Great Britain and the crown of Aragón) were against the French influence over the Hispanic Monarchy and supported Archduke Charles of Austria. In the Iberian Peninsula, Aragón feared for the French absolutism. 

Philip V's painting in Xátiva Museum 
Then, Andrea has read the next point that was about the candidates to the throne and its supporters. 
Azahara has read the development of the war. There were equal forces on both sides, the British invaded Gibraltar and Minorca, the French - Castilian army defeated those who supported Archduke Charles in Almansa (1707). When the Emperor of Austria died, Archduke Charles became Emperor, so after this, the Europeans powers looked for an agreement to end the war (The Treaty of Utrecht). But the war continued in Catalonia until 1714, when Barcelona was bombed by Philip V's order. Finally they surrender. 
With the Treaty of Utrecht, Philip V became the king and he had to renounce to his rights of the Crown of France and all the European territories Spain had, were distributed among Austria and Savoy. Great Britain kept Minorca and Gibraltar and they received  two rights in the Indies: the Assiento and the ship of permission. 

 Treaty of Utrecht

Finally we have copied the consequences of the war because we didn't find them in our book. We have copied some of them but Paqui has said that there were more. One of them was, for example, the birth of Spain as a unified nation with the imposition of the laws of Castile to all the territories (only Navarre and the Basque provinces kept their fueros). 

Secondly, we have started a new scheme with the title of "The 1st Bourbons (18th century)". Paqui has started explaining us Philip V's reign with some slides. He imposed absolutism, inspired on France's political system. New Planta Decrees were imposed to the Crown of Aragón created, all the Castilian institutions were extended to all the territory, the king was helped by secretaries and councils and intendants were used to collect taxes. 
Philip V decided to abdicate in favour of his son Louis in 1724. Louis I reigned only for six months because he died. So Philip V was forced to return to the throne but he was helped by secretaries. After his death in 1746, Ferdinand VI (son of Philip V's first wife) became the new king. 
We have started the Ferdinand VI's reign but the bell has rung. So we have to finish the 1st part of the scheme for the next day. 

 Ferdinand VI
Here you have this interesting video about all we have studied about the War of the Spanish Succession. Hope you like it! 

As always, we have written down some new words in our glossary:
- To fear for/to be afraid of: temer.
- Enthroning: entronización. 
- Remorse: remordimiento. 
- Nueva Planta Decrees: Decretos de Nueva Planta.
- Barely: rara vez, pocas veces.
- Intendant: intendente. 
- Survey: encuesta.
- To complain: quejarse.
- Cadastre: catastro. 

This is all for today, hope you have a nice weekend! See you on Monday :) 

Tuesday, November 25, 2014

25th November (Tuesday)

Hi everyone! I am Cristina.

I'm going to tell you what we have done today in Social Sciences class:
First of all, we have waved the teacher as everyday, but the difference today is that José Luis has called the teacher "Paquita" (I don't know why).

Then, we have summarized what we learnt last day about Enlightened Despotism: the last years of the 18th century, there were some revolutions due to de Enlightened Despotism, which consisted in some European monarchs who adopted ideas of the Enlightenment for introducing changes in their kingdoms and for trying to preserve their absolute power. The made changes without asking for the population's permission. The administrative, educational and economic changes some monarchs made didn't satisfy most of the population, because they reformed only what they wanted to. They said "Everything for the people, but without the people".

We have established the date of the exam: we will take it on Thursday, 11th of December.

After that, we have spent nearly the whole lesson talking about the part B of the third point of the unit: The Independence of the British colonies of North America.
In the second half of the 18th century, there were 13 British colonies in North America. There were many protests against the metropolis, such as the reaction against the increase of the tea tax. This revolt caused the assault to a British ship by some colonists, who threw away all the tea cargo to the sea: the Boston Tea Party.

Then we have talked about the Declaration of Independence, written by Tomas Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin to achieve the independence of the United States.

Finally, as most of the days, we have learnt something curious: we saw few days ago in the news that the president of the United States of America has issued a decree that legalizes 5,000,000 illegal inmigrants living in the USA. We have also talked about people who obtain visas to stay in the USA in exchange for having a stable job. This has reminded me a good example of what we have said: I saw that in a chapter of a TV series I like, one of the main characters has to look for a new job because if she doesn't find it in two months, they will deport her back to Canada.

In my opinion, today's lesson has been interesting and a bit different, because in stead of giving us a scheme to complete it, Paqui has given us some exercises to do from the Review.

I'd like to share with you a nice video about the Declaration of Independence:


Tuesday, 25th of November

Hello everybody! I 'm Clara Inés and this is my second journal of the year.

Today in Social Sciences we have done a lot of things.

At first we have corrected the exercises that Paqui has gave us for today, about the Type of State and Constitution in USA
The type of state was divided into Federal Republic which means that every state has important powers: own laws, own courts of justice..., and the Presidentalist Republic, which means that the president holds wide powers.
And the Constitution was divided into the Principles on which it was based which includes seven articles with the organization of the new State, based on the principles of political liberalism. The Content was freedom, property, religious freedom, freedom of speech, press freedom, right to wear weapons. And the Amendments which are 27 up to this moment and included the abolution of slavery, the right to vote for women for black people, the prohibition of alcohol... and so on

Later Paqui has started to explain the last point of this unit, Spain in the 18th century,A) War of Spanish Succesion (1700-1714). When Charles II died without direct succesors, he left his kingdom to Philip of Anjou. Louis XIV's grandson and a lot of people disagreed with his testament. Austria, the Low Countries, Portugal and Great Britain were against the French influence over the Hispanic Monarchy and supported Archduke Charles of Austria. In the Iberian Peninsula: Castile supported Philip of Anjou and Aragon supported Archduke Charles.
                                                                                            Philip of Anjou                                 
                                                              Archduke Charles of Austria                                    Source:          

In the development of the war Paqui has explained this with a map and said that they had equal forces on both sides; the British invaded Gibraltar and Minorca; the French-Castilian army defeated those who supported Archduke Charles in Almansa; When the emperor of Austria died, Archduke Charles became emperor. Fearing Austria's reinforcement, the European powers looked for an agreement to end the war and they signed the Treatry of Utrecht, Spain appeared with the Nueva Planta decrees Philip V issued to punish the reings of the Crown of Aragón. Later the war continued in Catalonia until 1714, when Barcelona was bombed by Philip V's order. Finally they surrendered.

                                                                                        Battle of Almansa

The Treaty of Utrecht included the following decisions: Philip V was recognized king of the Hispanic Monarchy; The Europeans territories of Hispanic Monarchy were distributed among Austria and Savoy; Great Britain preserved Gibraltar and Minorca and they got also two important rights: the assiento: they could sell black slaves in the Indies and the ship of permission: once a year they could send a 500 tons ship with their products to be sold in the Indies.


We have also added some new words to our glossary:
Take the risk-Arriesgarse
Assiento-Derecho de asiento
Ship of permission-Navío de permiso

At the end of the class Paqui has given us the homework that we have to do: a scheme about all that we have learnt today.

Finally the bell has rung and we have gone to run.


journal,24th of November, 2014 Monday

Hi! I'm Javi, and that is my Social Sciences Journal.
Today, in Soci9al Science , at first, we checked the exercice that we have to do for this morning, some activities of the page eleven, that speak about the 13 colonies of North America and the reasons of the disagree of the colonist.
Too, we have spoken about the Boston Tea Party, that it was one of the first steps of the independence and the American Revolution.
Then, Paqui spoke about the development of the American Revolution and we have copy a lot of things about the declaration of independence and later, we spoken about the first USA president, George Washington.
Before finish the class, Paqui give us a little bit of homework to do tomorrow.

                                             BOSTON TEA PARTY
                                                               Boston Tea Party
The colonist was influenced by the ideas of the enlightement, and for that, they start a revolution in Boston. 
The revolt started as a reaction of the constant tax increasing and because they weren't representation in the British Parlament.
The colonist dreesed like the native people, and abord a britanic ship in the East India to the Company of Boston arbour and throw all the charge away to the sea


In 1775, the war between the colonist and the Brithis people start. The firsts battles took place in Lexingtong and Concord, and the colonist people was supported by the French and the Hispanic Monarchy.
The representative people met at the second intercontinental congress and took the goberment. 
The 4th of July of 1776, was declare the declaration of independence, created by Thomas Jefferson
The leader of the colonist was George Washington, that before the war, was declare the first USA presindent.                                
In 1787, was created the USA constitution, that say that the USA was a Federal State and a Presidential Republic. Too, the constitution add 7 articles that spoke about the organization of the New State based on the politic liberalism. 
Then, in the constitiution, was added the bill of rights and 27 amenments 

Saturday, November 22, 2014


 The Girl with a pearl earring was painted by Johannes Vermeer. The author was born in 1632 and he died in 1675 in the Low Countries. The current documentation shows that Vermeer wasn't a famous painter in his period despite now is the most representative Dutch figure of the 17th century. Probably Vermeer is famous due to his way of painting with strength in their compositions and for the use of clear and shiny colours.Vermeer represents daily life scenes in his paintings.

The Girl with a pearl earring is made up with oil in a little format (46’5 x 40 cm) painted in 1665-1667. Nowadays the painting is in the Mauritshuis museum of the Hague.
Vermeer wanted to call the attention of the people with the look of the young girl. The girl has a half-open lips which create sensuality and mystery; and her turban adds exoticism because this was an elegant and popular accessory in the 17th century. However, the principal focal point is not only the look, is the pearl which shows contrasts of light. The composition is geometrical, simple and balanced, powerful but harmonic.

We can distinguish the contrasts and the shadows, the background is darkest than the foreground because the painter used contrast of lights and colours to show the woman better and in a first ground.
The painting had, obviously, Baroque features: use of oil painting, predominance of colour over drawing, warm colours, contrasts, movement…
Nobody knows who the girl is, but there are some ideas of who can be:
-His older daughter, Maria.
-The daughter of his commissioner who had the same aspect as the girl in the painting.
-Griet, the servant.

Vermeer made more paintings like The Girl with a pearl earring: The Girl with a flute and Study of a Young Woman. The three were included in the Dissius catalogue of 1696 due to their representations.


I have found the photos in these sources.