Thursday, May 31, 2012

Some cartoons about the Great Depression during Hoover´s presidency

Yesterday we studied that the USA government followed the liberal othodoxy at the beginning of the economic crisis. They expected that the "invisible hand of the market" would solve the problems without any political intervention. But the evidence showed that things wouldn´t work if reforms were not done. President Hoover's government followed a deflationist policy, increased tariffs to protect the USA production and started some emergency programs to help the poor, but the intervention of the government in economy didn´t start until Franklin D. Roosevelt started ruling in March 1933. 

Here you have some political cartoons about the Great Depression during Hoover´s presidency: 

Wednesday, May 30, 2012

What the risk premium is and other questions

Today has been another stressful day for the Spanish risk premium. This has become a very common expression in the news since the economic crisis started. The media are constantly informing about the evolution of the Spanish risk premium and they say this evolution will be decisive for the economic future of the country. But what is the risk premium? What has been its evolution since the beginning of the crisis? How does it affect to our ordinary life? Let´s explain all these concepts in a simple way: 


The States need money to finance their projects and general expenses (public works, the Social  Security, education, the administration). In order to get the money they need, the States collect taxes (direct and indirect taxes), but if the money they collect itsn´t enough, they issue bonds, treasury bills and debentures and sell them in the sovereign debt markets. These are the products the Spanish Treasury sells: 

As the States sell their bonds in markets, their price will depend on supply and demand. In critical times, such as the present moment, investors look for safety and they tend to buy the bonds of the countries they consider safer in the long term. Safety is related to the economic situation of the countries (unemployment rates, Gross Domestic Product, health of the financial system, sovereign debt...). In the Eurozone (the area which comprises the countries that have the Euro as official currency) Germany is considered to be the safest country to invest money. Economists have invented a rate to define the risk for the investors who buy public bonds of a country of not getting their money back. This rate is established in relationship with the 10 year German bonds and it´s called risk premium and it´s measured in basis points (integer number and two decimals).

Let´s see an example: 

If I buy a 10 year German bond today, the German government will have to pay me a yearly interest rate of 1.32 %. If the bond costs 100 €, this means that the German government will have to pay me 1.32 € per year and they will have to give my 100 € back in ten years. So in ten years my investment of 100 € will produce 13.2 €. This is not much money, but it´s a safe investment, because I trust in the German government ability of giving my money back in ten years. As there is a huge demand of German bonds, the German government can pay low interests. There have been days in which they sold bonds without paying any interest rate. For example, if the German bond costed 100 €, they didn´t offer any interest rate and they promised to give 98 € back, instead of the initial 100 € investment. This may seem crazy, but it shows the fear investors have. They prefer receiving less money, rather than risking their savings and getting higher interest rates. 

As the economic situation in Spain is bad, investors have less confidence in the ability of the Spanish goverment to pay their 10 year bonds. Today, the interest rate of the 10 year Spanish bonds has risen to 6.67%. This means that every investor will receive 6.67 € per year for ten years. Their final profit will be 66.7 €. This means that for every 100 € the Spanish government receives for the investors, they will give almost 67 € back. This is unsustainable in the short term. 

With these examples, we are ready to explain the risk premium concept: it´s the difference between the interest rate of the 10 year Spanish bond and the 10 year German bond. Today the 10 years Spanish bond interest rate has reached 6.67 % and the one of the German bond is 1.32%. The difference is equal to 5.39%. If we express this in basis points, we´ll have 539 basis points


Here you have a graph where you can see the evolution  of the Spanish risk premium in the last year. The graph shows the increasing distrust of the investors in Spain: 

This graph also includes information about the figures the risk premium reached in the countries of the Eurozone that were bailed out just before their bailout. These figures are not reassuring. Greece, Portugal and Ireland were bailed out when their risk premium rose up to 500 basis points. The Spanish situation is a little better than the one in these countries, because the Spanish public debt is not so high (73.3% of the Gross Domestic Product  for 2012, while Greece´s debt is 157.5%, the Portuguese debt is 124.3% , the Irish debt is 122% and the Italian debt is 120%), but if the country has to pay more interests to get money from the markets, the Spanish debt will increase dangerously.  

Here you have another graph about today´s risk premium situation in the European countries that are going through bigger difficulties: 


If the risk premium continues to climb, Spain will need European funds to pay the State debts. This would mean another bailout. If Spain is bailed out, the European Union will impose stronger rules to reduce the State debt and this will mean more and harder cuts and sacrifices for most of the population. 


Of course there is. Remember what we´ve said today abouth Keynes´ ideas and the New Deal. The solution would be that the countries belonging to the Eurozone issue Eurobonds. The German reliability could be shared with the countries that are going through cash-flow problems, their risk premium would be lower and they could get money from the investors to finance their projects and start generating economic growth. Why aren´t the European leaders going this way? If there is a possible solution, why have they decided to let some countries fall down? As we know for previous experiences, this is a matter of choice. Choices determine the kind of people we are: supportive or selfish. 

30th OF MAY

Today we've started coming into the class because 2ND of Bachillerato wasn't there.
For first, Paqui has reminded us the schemes we had to copy in last class, and after we've copied this from the blackboard:
Wall Street Crash of 1929
24th October (Black Thursday):  -11%
25th October                           :  -6.4%
28th October (Black Monday) :  -13%
29th October (Black Tuesday) :  -12%
                                                  -42.4% of its value
In four days only.
For second, we've continued the class checking the exercises. Silvia has checked the first exercise, which was about how the crisis of 1929 spread to Europe:
The public evidence of the crisis came on the 24th October 1929, when the price of stocks in Wall Street fell down. The stockholders panicked and tried to sell their stocks massively. Prices shrunk, many investors got ruined and they couldn't give their loans back. Bnacks crashed  down and economy collapsed. When the USA banks asked the European banks for the money they had lent them before, the crisis spread to Europe and the Great Depression became a world problem.
Paqui has explained this in the blackboard and we've seen how Herbert Hoover intevened:

  • At the beginning, no reaction following the liberal orthodoxy (no intervention of the State in economy).
  • Later there was a deflation (tried to keep prices and salaries low).
  • And protectionism: increased tariffs to protect industry.
This made things worse and Hoover lost elections.
After that we've started checking exercise 5, which was about  the different decisions made to reduce the impact of the Great Depression. We've started checking it, but we haven't could finish it because the bell has rung:
F.D. Roosevelt won them in 1932 with a program called New Deal and when his government started ruling in March 1933 the Congress and the President issued a lot of laws (Alphabet Laws) in order to recover economy.
Foreclosure- Embargo
To foreclose- Embargar
N.Y. Stock Exchange Market- Crack de la Bolsa de N.York
To panick- Entrar en pánico/Aterrorizarse
To warn- Advertir
Risk bonus- Prima de riesgo

Monday, May 28, 2012

28th May 2012

Today some of the class had gone on a trip of biology, so we were almost the half of the class more or less. We have started with Paqui who has explained on a power point the crisis, at first she has shown a slide about prosperity and consumer society another about the other face of prosperity in which Paqui has said that everyone could have what they wanted because everything was paid by installment, after this we have seen a slide in which it was Charles Chaplin with his character Charlot and he represented a tramp, after this one we have seen another of the prohibition of the alcohol from 1919 to 1933 it was prohibited to produce, sell or consume alcoholic drinks.
During this prohibition of alcohol the mafia of the USA made speakeasy which were ilegal bars, Al Capone  was an important ganster of this period, I asked Paqui of how he was arrested and she told me that he was detenied for his tax evasion not his ilegal activities.
Another slide was about Ku Klux Klan, which was a racist organization who hounded other races people, especially black people.
Then Paqui has put another power point about a scheme of the origin of the crisis in which were the expressions: Financial bubble which in spanish is  burbuja financiera and real estate bubble which in spanish is burbuja inmobiliaria and afther this Paqui has said that football pools is la quiniela in spanish.
Paqui has explained the crisis with people from the class: Dani, Ana Isabel, Bea Antequera, Andrea and Angel were the chosen ones.
After this we have participated in a fire drill and then we have finished of copying the first scheme and Paqui has send the second for homework and exercises 4 and 5 from this unit too. Today was a moving day. Here you can see the schemes:

Friday, May 25, 2012

Something more about Ellis Island and immigration

Yesterday we talked about Ellis Island, the gateway to the USA for millions of immigrants at the beginning of the 20th century. Here you have some more information about this small island, located in New York harbor, very close to the Statue of Liberty. 

Its name comes from Samuel Ellis, the man who bought it at the end of the 18th century. Ellis sold it to the New York state at the beginning of the 19th. A fort was built there, but at the end of the 19th century the federal government decided to create there an immigrant centre to control the access to the USA. Around 12 million immigrants entered in the USA through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1954. The island was used as customs, medical examinations centre and also as a detention station for the immigrants who were rejected and later deported (around 2% of the total number of immigrants arrived).

Today Ellis Island hosts the  Immigration Museum and belongs to the Statue of Liberty National Monument. The website of the island allows the descendants of the immigrants to know their origins. Estimates say that the ancestors of around 100 million current citizens of the USA arrived in the USA through Ellis Island. 

Liberty Island in the foreground and Ellis  Island in the background to the left

In green, the original extension of the island, which was enlarged to build different facilities 

Aerial view

An old image of Ellis Island

A Family of Russian immigrants arrived in Ellis Island in 1905

Ellis Island website, to learn more about the history of this place and look for immigrant ancestors: 

Thursday, May 24, 2012

Presentation about the USA during the 20s-30s

Here you have it. Have a look on it. It includes a lot of images and cartoons about this period. Please, use it to ccomplete your schemes and exercises.

24th May 2012

Today in Social Science class...
Paqui has said that she has known that our assessment meeting will be on the 19th June and she also said that we have to decide on the days of the exams. We were like ten minutes, deciding the days and these are the days: the last exam will be on the 14th, the make-up exam will be on the 18th of June and the resit exam on the same day in the afternoon.
Afterwards, we have continued with the class and we have copied the outline of the new unit about the Interwar Period (1919-1939) on the notebook.
1) The USA: from the "roaring twenties"  to the Great Depression
2) Fascist Italy
3) Nazi Germany
4) Spain during the interwar period:
     A) Primo de Rivera's Dictatorship (1923-1931)
     B) The 2nd Republic (1931-1936)
     C) The Civil War (1936-1939)

Then, Paqui has explained again the Disaster of Annual to Laura Muñoz because she has had a doubt about this. Also Paqui has said that she will collect our notebooks next week.
We have started with USA: from the roaring 20s to the great depression, in the "Roaring Twenties", the people were very happy and we have seen a picture about this and there were people dancing and happy. Paqui has said that in this period there are a lot of interesting pictures

Afterwards, we have started seeing the power point of this unit and we have seen the graphic of the World Industrial Production in 1929 and then we have copied what happened in the USA after World War 1 on the notebook:
-During WW1 the USA supplies the belligerent countries with raw materials, industrial products and weapons.
-The European countries owed a lot of money to the USA (war loans).
-Intact productive system after the war.
-Small human losses with respect to other countries.
-Owners of half of the world gold reserves.
-The dollar became the predominant currency in international trade.

In this photo some immigrants to USA go out:


At the end of the class, we have seen the percentage of houses with electric appliances. And the bell has rung. Today we have learnt some new words: to discredit (desacreditar), to disavow (desautorizar), roar (rugido), roaring (rugiente), roaring twenties ( felices años 20), to ow (deber), to own (ser propietario), creditor (acreedor), war loans (créditos de guerra) and payment by instalments (pago a plazos).

23rd May 2012

Hello!! Sorry for the delay but I was doing a music project during all the afternoon and evening!

Today in Social Sciences we have started checking exercice number 16 from the review about Spain in 1917...

16.- Prepare a scheme of the 1917 in Spain, including causes, development and consequences.

Spain during 1917

Causes: -Loss of purchasing power due to inflation and because salaries didn't increase.
             -Exclusion of the increasing opposotion of the political system.
Development: Triple movement of protests, but the protesters were not coordinated and theeir demands were different:
  • Military protest: protests due to the loss of purchasing power and promotion system (Promotions were faster by mentions in dispatches and this benefited the military destined in Morocco). The king supported the military and the government closed the Cortes.
  • Political protests: the deputies of the opposition partiescalled and alternative meeting to the Cortes and creates the Deputies' Assembly in Barcelona, but only 10% of the deputies went there. The government dissolved the assembly pacifically.
  • Workers protests: the workers fought to improve their working conditions and the unions called a general striker but the government repressed protests.
Consequences: Apparently the system survived, but instability increased (shorter dynastic governments, governments of national unity and increasing protests.


Afterwards we have started with a new point called Increasing protest (1918-1921), and we have copied a small scheme about the Bolshevik Treaties. It is divided into two parts:
  • Andalousia: labourers tried to seize land.
  • Catalonia.unions increased theis influence among workers and put pressure on industrialist who answered hiring gunmen to threat workers. Violent confrontments between radical anarchist and gunmen became usual in Barcelona. The government used the Army to restore public order.
Then we have copied about the Disaster of Annibal:
The final crisis of the Restoration system came again from a disaster in Morocco: Disaster of Annibal (1921)-> General Fernández Silvestre, with the king's permission planned a movement of troops in Morocco, which ended in catastrophe (12,000 dead). This disaster created a big scandal and a Parliament commision war, formed to determine the responsabilities. The conclusions ( Picasso report) pointed to the king. Partly to avoid the publication of the report in September 1923, generak Primo de Rivera rose up against thegovernment. The king supported the Coup d' Etat and united his fate to the duration of the dictatorship.

Today we have learnt some words:
-Labourer: jornalero
-Gunmen: pistolero
-To seize land: ocupar tierras


This is all for today! Good night!

Monday, May 21, 2012

In defense of public education

Although this is a blog in English, I´m going to embed two videos in Spanish about the importance of public education. We all learn or work in a public school and I think we should think about what this means. In my opinion, this is not a political matter, but a matter of rights. The public school guarantees equal access to knowledge and it´s sad that at this point we still have to fight to defend this right. But, as Napoleon said, "the only victories which leave no regret are those which are gained over ignorance". In other words, this is a battle worth fighting for. 

Monday 21st May 2012

Today in social sciences we have had to wait some minutes and to keep silence because four students of bachillerato were doing an exam. Then while they've finished it Paqui has given us back the exams about WW1, the Russian Revolution and Stalinism. Dani and Bea bet about if Bea would pass the exam. Bea got a six and Dani won the Bet. Then, one by one the Bachillerato students have finished the exam and we've started with Canaleja's Government. It was his 2nd attempt of regeneration of the system, by the Liberal Party. He imposed two main laws:
José Canalejas

-Padlock law: in which he prohibited the settlement of new religious orders in Spain for 2 years, in order to try to reduce the Church influence.
-Conscription law: to make conscription more equalitarian. All the young men had to do the military service( 3 years if they didn't pay any fee and a minimum of 5 months if they paid)
But Canalejas was killed by an anarchist in Madrid in 1912.

After the Assassination of Canalejas

Then Manu has checked exercise 15 about the consequences of the neutrality of Spain during WW1. Spain sold products to both faction at war, exports increased and deficit reduced, but prices increased, salaries didn't and protests increased. There was an industrial development and the purchasing power of the people decreased. After we've finished the lesson watching the part of the powerpoint about the 2nd Big crisis of 1917.
Today we've learnt new words as:
-Padlock Law: ley del Candado.
-Fee: cuota.
-Purchasing power: poder adquisitivo.
-Promotion system: Sistema de ascensos.
-By Mentions in dispatches: por méritos de Guerra.
-By lenght of Service: por antigüedad.

Presentation about Alphonse XIII´s reign

Here you have the Powerpoint presentation for Alphonse XIII´s reign. Please, use it to complete your  schemes and exercises.

Sunday, May 20, 2012

Barcelona´s Tragic Week pictures

This is a collection of original postcards  with pictures of the events happened in Barcelona during the so called Tragic Week in July-August 1909: 

Friday, May 18, 2012

Gimme (a Russian Revolution)

Here you have the karaoke of the song we´ve been singing this week. The final title will be Gimme (a Russian Revolution). The karaoke is made with Movie Maker. I hope the song was useful for yesterday´s exam. Enjoy!

Thursday, May 17, 2012

Goya by Beatriz Yuste

This is my powerpoint about Francisco de Goya y Lucientes. I have learnt a lot with this project : his life, jobs and his paintings. I hope you enjoy it

Thursday, 17th May

Today in Social Sciences we have done the exam of the unit about the  First World War and the Russian Revolution.
The exam has had five questions. The first one consisted of explaining the causes and the outbreak of the First World War, the other one had two parts and we had to choose one, one was about the features of the First World War and the other one was about  the consequences of the First World War.
The third question were concepts: Schlieffen Plan, War of Attrition,  Mandates, Soviets, War Communism, Autocracy, NEP and Totalitarian State.
In the fourth question we had to explain the decisions taken in the Conference of París.
In  the last question we had to choose on of these matters: the 1917 Revolution in Russian or the main features of Stalism.
The people that didn´t pass the project have had to answer all the questions compulsory but they have had to choose or question 2 or question 4 and some questions about art.
For me the exam have been easy but a little long.
The next day Paqui is going to say us the marks of the exams
Enjoy the weekend!

Wednesday, May 16, 2012

Wednesday, 16th May

Today in Social Sciences we have started the class late because there were people outside in the corridor, after this Paqui has told us to sit down and we have do it. After She has asked about the exam if we have any questions, but there weren´t questions so we have started the class. After this Paqui has said silence several times and allways the same people speaking, and it´s true if we paid more attention the classes will be better in my oppinion. Then we have talked about the photo of 4th of ESO and about why is it on friday. After Paqui has made a review of the period in Spain during the first world war and the russian revolutions, in this part Paqui has explained about Maura´s regeneration reforms and she has write the problems that his goverment had on the blackboard. Paqui has explained after this about the Tragic week and the reservies, people who passed the military order and had to expend some years in the reserve for more or less 15 years and they had to go to morroco inmediatly for the war.
After we have corrected the exercise 14 which was for homework all the class, which was about this and after Paqui shown us a powerpoint about the consecuences of the tragic week. Paqui has told us that this problems were not only in Spain and the protest against the church too, they killed some priests too.
After the tragic week, Paqui has said that Maura was dismised because he was considered to be responsible for what has happened in the tragic week. After this there was a electoral coalition industry and a new goverment was formed: a liberal goverment heded by Canalejas. After this Yolanda Rubio has said that she has a little big hips, bigger than her sister, and other girls said some things in this discusion as: Yolanda Abad, Carmen and more. To end the discussion Paqui has said that everyone is different and we have to accept our body. After this Paqui has send us the exercise 15 about this information. And at the end we have listen and sing one song about th russian revolution made by Paqui and the so famous Tanto Monta, Monta Tanto, which was a people request.
José Canalejas
Link of the photo:

Tuesday, May 15, 2012

Monday, 14th of May

Monday, 14 of May

Today in Social Science we have started the point 3, Paqui has copied it on the blackboard:

 Spain during the first decades of the 20th century: Alphonse XIII's reign (1902-1931).
- Features of the political system of Restoration:
                - alternation of two dynastic parties( conservative and liberal).
                - exclusion of the opposition parties.
                - Constitution of 1876.
                - The King had an arbitration role.
                - Manipulation of the electiones.
                - attemt of keeping the ARmy out of politics.
These features were in force during Alphonse XII's reign and Mª Cristina of Hasburg's regency. But some things started changing during Alphonse XIII's reign:

-Alphonse XIII didn't respect his arbitration role many times. He intervened in politics, especially in military affaris and his role was decisive in some changes of goverment.
-Attempt of the Army its prestige last in the 1998 Disaster. Their intervention in Morocco was the origin of several internal crises in Spain: The tragic week and the Disaster of Annual.
-Public opinion started growing, as a consequece of the industrializtion and urbanization processes and the establishment of compulsary primary education since 1902.
-Opposition increased and workers became more organized: a new union appeared in 1910 and the PSOE got a deputy in the elections for the first time in 1910.
-Some dynastic politicians became aware of the fact that the Restoration systme needed to be reformed. Drawing inspiration from the inside( from above) to avoid revolution from bellow :

    - Antonio Maura, from the Conservative Party
    - José CANALEJAS, from the Liberal Party

After copy that, Paqui has sent us a exercise and then she has put on the computer a song from ABBA but the letter was about the history of the Russians Revolutions.

Sorry I know I'm late..1kiss for everybody!!!

Monday, May 14, 2012

Goya by Silvia Castiblanque

Francisco de Goya
View more PowerPoint from Silviacastiblan
This is my presentation about Francisco de Goya, in this presentation you can see the two stages and his main paintings. The painting I had liked more in the autumm because it's a ligh painting and I liked this season.

Sunday, May 13, 2012

Vanishing Bolsheviks and other manipulated pictures

Last Thursday we saw several manipulated photographs in the USSR during Stalin´s rule. Here you have some other pictures and links: 

Four, three, two, one...

The original picture was taken in Leningrad in 1926 and it showed, Antipov, Stalin, Kirov and Shvernik. Kirov was executed in 1934 and Antipov in 1941. Shvernik survived until 1970, but was erased when Brodsky painted Stalin´s portrait in 1949. 

And these are some links: 

- SOVIET RUSSIAN PHOTO CORRECTION: this is the website we visited last week.

- THE COMISSAR VANISHES: THE FALSIFICATION OF PHOTOGRAPHS IN STALIN´S RUSSIA: interactive exhibition by the News Museum and Loyola University

As we saw the other day, Stalin was not the only one to order the manipulation of photographs. Here you have again the manipulated pictures of Franco and Hitler´s interview in Hendaye (France) in 1940:

On the first picture, Franco with his eyes closed 
On the second one, Franco with his eyes open 

On this picture they stuck the three figures over 

another picture of a train arriving to the station

And here Franco was "made" taller than he was 
and a decoration was added to his uniform. 



This is a curious piece of news appeared today (11th June) in the newspaper.The General Council of the Judicial Power press service has been erasing the images of a man who works as a bodyguard for Carlos Dívar, the president of the Council. This man is supposedly the one who accompanied him to his "business trips" to Marbella. Stalin´s methods are still alive! Here you have the information: 

Thursday, May 10, 2012

Baroque, Rococo and New-Classicism Presentation

Here is my presentation about three of the main artistic movements of the 19th century. They're late Baroque, Rococo and New-Classicism. In this powerpoint there are many works of art which I knew before, but I didn't know about their meaning, their artistic style... It is an entertain and interesting powerpoint and I hope you'll enjoy it as I enjoy creating and researching information for this powerpoint.

10th/ May/ 2012.

Today at the beginning of the class Paqui has said the real translation of piolet in English, Ice-ax,   the Paqui has shown us a video on the blog about Trostky´s assesination, but as we haven´t had time to wacht it, we can watch it at home. Then we  have checked exercise 12 about how Stalin reached power, his objectives and the main features of his  rule, Silvia and Yolanda Rubio has done it.

A) Economic Policy: - Collectivization
                                 - Centraly planned Economy
                                 - Priority to heavy industriy
B) Elimination of Enemies: - NKVD (secret police)
                                                               - Killed
                                                               - Set to Gulags ( forced labour camps)
C) Totalitarian State: C. Party
D) Cult of Stalin´s personality.

Then we have been speaking about The secret police (KNVD) arrested more than 1.5 million people and 700.000 people were killed during the Stalinist purges in the 1930. Paqui has explained some things about  the Great Purge (1938): Stalin ordered the execution of many generals of the Red army. We have seen some photos of Stalin, but as Stalin was  fell from grace, he couldn´t appeared in photos and they were retouched with photoshop, as it have been very interesting Paqui has shown us a photo about  Hitler and Francos´interview.
At the end of the class we have decided the date of the exam. It will be the 17th of May, and we have seen Daniel´s Power Point about Art Nouveau.

Wednesday, May 9, 2012

Lenin´s succession and the ice-ax

As we have studied today, after Lenin´s death there were some transition years in which Stalin and Trotsky were the main leaders of two factions in fight for power. This is what  Lenin wrote about them in 1922 about Stalin and Trotsky: 

24th December
Comrade Stalin, having become Secretary-General, has unlimited authority concentrated in his hands, and I am not sure whether he will always be capable of using that authority with sufficient caution. Comrade Trotsky, on the other hand (...) is distinguished not only by outstanding ability. He is personally perhaps the most capable man in the present Central Committee., but he has displayed excessive self-assurance and shown excessive preoccupation with the purely administrative side of the work.

25th December

Stalin is too rude and this defect, although quite tolerable in our midst and in dealing among us Communists, becomes intolerable in a Secretary-General. That is why I suggest the comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post and appointing another man in his stead who in all other respects differs from Comrade Stalin in having only one advantage, namely, that of being more tolerant, more loyal, more polite, and more considerate to the comrades, less capricious, etc. This circumstance may appear to be a negligible detail. But I think that from the standpoint of safeguards against a split, and from the standpoint of what I wrote above about the relationship between Stalin and Trotsky, it is not a detail, or it is a detail which can assume decisive importance.

Lenin´s testament (1922)

In these transition years the President of the USSR was Alexei Rykov, who supported Stalin against Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev.  Rykov, Kamenev and Zinoviev were executed in 1938 during the Great Purge. Trotsky was assassinated by Stalin´s order in Mexico City in 1940. The killer was Ramón Mercader, a Spanish communist who worked as a Soviet agent. Mercader used an ice-ax to kill Trotsky and the story of this murder is very curious. Mercader visited Trotsky several times and gained his confidence. On the 20th August 1940 Mercader brought an ice-ax  hidden in his raincoat and waited for the right moment to kill Trotsky. Here you have a short video which reproduces the murder: 

And this is a picture of the famous ice-ax:

On the link above you can find more information about the house where the murder was committed. Now it´s a museum about Trotsky. 

And here you have another link about what happened to the ice-ax: 

After killing Trotsky, Mercader was arrested by Trotsky´s bodyguards, later judged and sentenced to 20 years prison in Mexico. Stalin decorated Mercader with the Order of Lenin, the most valuable decoration bestowed in the USSR. Mercader died in Cuba in 1978.

Goya by Sara

I've done a presentation about Goya's life, of course, including part of his works. I've enjoyed a lot doing it, because I've could show my creativity. I like Goya in general and I like a lot his fist works and also "the 3rd of May" and I don't like at all "Saturn devouring his son". I hope you like it as much as me....!!

Art Nouveau and Antoni Gaudí by Laura Bustamante

Hi! This is my project about Art Nouveau and Antoni Gaudí. I think that Art Nouveau is an interesting style, but the part I liked most of my Project has been Antoni Gaudí, because it was a great artist. With this project I have learned much more about the Art Nouveau and even more about Antoni Gaudí and The Holy Family.

See you tomorrow! & Enjoy it!


Wendsday 9th of May

Today was the last day to correct our project and upload it to slideshare, everyone can watch my project in the post below.

Today we are going to finish with the Power Point about the Russian Revolution.

We have reviewed a little bit, the USSR was a totalitarian state with only one party, most times the leader of the Communist party was the president of the USSR .

Now we continued with new things,  production was very low and Stalin decided to insured the new economic policy. Giving Land to peasants and factories to workers, economy recover very quickly with this new policy.

Later we have talk about digital withe board in the high school there are 7 new ones and 200 notebooks for 1st year ESO students. Next year there will be 15 teachers less and  the Junta spend the money in this?

7 Whiteboards          3000€ per one x 7                                21000€
200 notebooks          250€  per one x 200                            50000€           

                                                                                    3 teachers

And no money for photocopies. If our necessities were covered this would be hopeful.

After this news break we continued with the Power Point: the fight for the power between Trotsky and Stallin.
Stallin wants to spread comunism througt war and Trotsky throught  imitation and peace. So Stallin reach more spport than Trotsky and Trostky went to exile out of the USSR in 1924.
As Trotsky was exiled Stallin send a Spainish man to kill Trotsky, he was Ramón Mercader who killed Trotsky with a piolet, the thing wich climbers use.

Now Manu have askesd Paqui, how was the realtion between Stallin and Lenin, for Paqui this is a good question. Lenin didn´t like Stallin, beacause for him he was a dangerous criminal and at the same time he didn´t like Trotsky. In 1953 Stallin died and there were different presidents of the USSR:
  • Kuoshev
  • Brezhnev
  • Chernenko
  • Andropov
  • Corvachov
After the USSR broke up into different republics and the presidents of Russia were:
2010/08/08/ussr-education industry-science-welfare/  
  • Yeltsem
  • Putin
  • Plecktedev
  • Putin
And now the last point of the unit Stallinism
The goverment stablished the centre plan economy. So they planned economy for five years.

The goverment of the USSR also priority heavy industry.

If the factories didn´t reach the spectatives they have a big problem and this system is not wrong
So the owners of the factories change the numbers. If they produce more thwt is planned the sold the rest of the product in the black market.

In the last years of the USSR it was very difficult to find eggs, one egg 40€.Kelly told us something about that last year.                                                      

For Homework exercise 12 in the review

Tuesday, May 8, 2012

Art Nouveau and Gaudí by Ángel

This is my project about Art nouveau and Antonio Gaudí . I like this art style, Gustav Klimt and and Alhonse Mucha in painting,Domènech i Montaner and Antonio Gaudí in architecture and all that is refer to Decorative arts. See you tomorrow and enjoy it!

Neo-Impressionism and Post-Impressionism by Isabel

Hello! This is my proyec about neo-impressionism and post-impressionism. I have enjoy learning new things about these periods, and I like a lot both of them, one of the things I have liked more, is to know new painters, and I thing Paul Signac is very interesting, I like his paintings a lot! Kisses, see you!

Rebeca´s Presentation

Hello! This is my project about Iron and Steel Architecture and realism. I have liked to do this project because I have learnt many things about how architecture evolved in the past and how the engineers and the architects discovered new useful materials like iron and steel. But this part for me has been a little boring, I prefer Realism, because painting and sculpture show the ideas and feelings of a period. In Realism as the word say, the painters showed the real life: poverty, hungry... I prefer painting instead of sculpture. I have analysed a sculpture of Jean- Baptiste Carpeaux called Dance and a painting of Gustave Courbet called The Artist´s studio.

Presentation of Neo and Post-Impressionism, Laura M.

Hi everybody! This is my presentation about Neo and Post-Impressionism. Neo-Impressionism was an artistic movement which included great artists such as Seurat and Paul Signac. I have explained A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of la Grande Jatte, by Georges Seurat, but I also really like a Paul Signac's painting called Grand Canal in Venice (that's why I have included it on the cover).
Post-Impressionism was a different style, which gave more importance to feelings and the use of pure and bright colours to express emotions. The main artists of this period were Paul Gauguin, Toulouse-Lautrec, Paul Cézanne and Van Gogh. I have explained a Van Gogh's painting called The Sower, but I have also liked a lot other of his paintings such as The Starry Night or The red vineyard.I hope you like the project! See you!

Monday, May 7, 2012



Today we have started a little bit late the class because Paqui has had to tell as many time to be quiet and seat.
Then we have started watching the part of the powerpoint about the Civil War in Russia. It confronted two factions:
-The White Army; formed by the Tsarist army, nobles and rich peasants.
-The Red Army, formed by the Bolsheviks supporters and organized by Trotsky

Leon Trotsky

In order to support the Red Army the Bolsheviks ordered the total requisition of food. All the production was destined to war; WAR COMMUNISM.
In order to survive the peasants were obliged to hide part of their production, because the commissars got all their production. But if they resisted or if the commissar discovered it, they were killed. During this war the Royal Family was also executed. Ordered by Lenin and planned by the Soviets the Tsar Nicholas II, his family and some of their most loyal servants were executed at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterimburg. It led to the legend about Anastasia which said that she could have escaped first to France and then to the USA. But it wasn't true.
The Tsar Nicholas II and his family
The Bolsheviks won the Civil war which caused 5 million dead people due to starvation and poverty and development of Black Market and a constant shortage of supplies in official markets.

After getting rid of the opposition parties the Bolsheviks created the USSR or Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, a federal state formed by the 11 republics and with his capital city in Moscow.

Flag of the USSR

It was a totalitarian state in which there was one only party, the CPSU, which concentrated all the power and occupied all the institutions, there wasn't a division of powers and there was a strong repression against those who opposed the Communist Party.
After some minutes some of our classmates started speaking about some pills Laura M. had to take due a problem she has, like a cyst in an ovary, but little by little the conversation has turned its  topic into contraceptives... 
Today we have learnt new words as:
-Commissar: Comisario
-Shortage of Supply: Escasez de abastecimiento
-Kulak: A rich peasant 
-Sickle: Hoz

Iron and steel architecture and realism by Diego

In mi opinion this is a very interesting project because we have learned a new way to upload presentations on the Internet. The painter that I liked the most, has been Jean Françoise Millet because he is a painter that represents ordinary life of peasants and not the life of the rich people. But the most difficult thing for me has been to found information about iron and steel architecture and also some sculptures of realism.
But this has been a good experience because we have mixed the technology, using power point, and we have learned different styles of art in the 19th century.