Monday, February 29, 2016

Monday, 29th February

Hi classmates!
Today in Social Sciences class we have reviewed the topic of new class-based society, which we learnt on Thursday. After that Paqui has introduced the topic about the Labour Movement with some pictures about the bad living conditions of workers.

  • FIRST WORKERS' PROTESTS: Protests against the bad living conditions of workers were the consequences of the labour movement. LUDDISM: workers destroyed the machines because they considered them responsible for their bad working conditions. Not organized protest. The workers discovered were executed.
  • CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS: Living and working together made the workers become aware of their situation and start organize to improve.
  • FIRST WORKERS' ASSOCIATIONS: Mutual benefit societies (associations of workers who paid a monthly fee to help other workers in case of illness) and Trade unions (associations of workers to fight for the improvements of their conditions. At the beggining they were forbidden)
  • FIRST ATTEMPTS TO INTERVENE IN POLITICS: CHARTISM (Political movement that demanded political rights for the workers. They presented a chart to the Parliament with their demands. They didn't get what they wanted

    • DEFINITION: ideology that aspires to build a society in which the the means of production are collective 
    • BRANCHES: Propositions based on collective property and the idea that humans are good by nature and willing to cooperate. All these propositions failed.
      • ROBERT OWEN: He owned a cotton fabric factory, he worried about his workers and created a model community called New Lanarck. He tried to extend this to the USA, but the experience failed.
      • COUNT OF SAINT SIMON: He considered the kings, nobles and clergy to be useless and parasitical groups. He promoted the abolition of inheritance.

        1. LUDDISM: luddismo
        2. LUDDITE: luddita
        3. WARNING LETTER: carta de aviso
        4. CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS: conciencia de clase
        5. MONTHLY FEE: cuota mensual
        6. MUTUAL BENEFIT SOCIETY: sociedad de socorros mutuos
        7. TRADE UNION: sindicato
        8. DECK: puerto
        9. POSH: pijo
        10. CHARTIST MOVEMENT: movimiento cartista
        11. BALLOT BOX: urna
        12. CONSTITUENCY: distrito electoral
        13. UTOPIAN: utópico
        14. COMMITTED: comprometido
        15. PARTNER: socio

Restoration, revolutions and unifications video projects (Part two)

These are the remaining video projects. Leave your comments, please:

























Thursday, February 25, 2016

25th of February 2016

Hi classmates! It's Fernando
Today in class of Social Sciencess we have continued with the unit of The Industrial Revolution.
Today we have seen the consequences of the Industrial Revolution, which are: development of consumer society, massive exploitation of resources: balance between population and resources broke up, pollution, acceleration of the urbanization precess and cyclical crysis in capitalism: related to lack of prevision and overproduction. 
Today we have been talking about consumer society.

Then we have continued with class-based society and we have seen the differences between the middle ages and the industrial revolution.
New vocabulary:
consumer society- sociedad de consumo
consumerism- consumismo
unsustainible development- desarrollo no sostenible
global warming- calentamiento global
cyclical crisis- crisis cíclica
vicious circle- circulo vicioso
purchasing power- poder adquisitivo
low cost- de bajo coste
afford- permitirse
employer- empleador
employee- empleado
recession- recesión
put pressure on- presionar
strike- huelga
repercusion- repercusión
class based society- sociedad de clases 

Wednesday, February 24, 2016

Restoration, revolutions and unifications video projects (Part one)

Here I'm going to embed the Youtube versions and the links to Educanon questions, so that you can see your classmates' projects and decide on which are the best ones. I'm including them in order of arrival to my e-mail account and your names appear in alphabetical order:  


























Tuesday, February 23, 2016

23rd February 2016

Today in class of Social Sciences Paqui has asked me about how was my trip in Rome, if I liked it and if I saw something from the travel journal that we made in the first term. I told her that I've seen the Vatican City (San Pietro) and a lot of things...

( )

Then the class has started. She has started writing a scheme about the 2nd Industrial Revolution on the blackboard. She has told us to complete it while she was explaining everything.  

The 2nd Industrial Revolution developed in the 2nd part of the 19th century.

New energy sources were found out, the electricity and the oil.

There were also new inventions such as: dynamo, alternator, transformer, incandescent light buld, trains, tramways, subway, telegraph, telephone, radio, cinematograph, phonograph, different types of engines...

She has told us about the telegraph, that more words you added, the more expensive it will be. Now, the telegraphhas it almost disappeared. I think that no one uses it now. Normally telegraphs were used to tell bad news, because normally people used letters.

With the telephone, in the past when you called someone, you first called a women and you told her with who you wanted to speak and she connected you with the person you want. Sometimes they listened to the conversation.

After that, for a small period, the class has started speaking about some TV series that I don't watch.

Then we have started learning about the new industries that developed during this revolution. They were the Metalworking Industry that invented the aluminum and the stainless iron; And the Chemical Industry that invented cement, concreted, pesticides, dyes, pharmaceutical products...

Then we have started learning about the new ways of organizing production, Taylorism/ Production line and Mass Production/ Standardization; These two ways were used for making cars, the first system consists of every worker making a part of the product; And the second one is making many copies from the same model.

After that we have continued with the explanation and we have started with the explanation about the Industrial Concentration. In this part she told us (she also wrote it on the blackboard) that the vertical and the horizontal concentrations were created to save money or eliminate competitors and they were the cartels, the trusts and holdings.

After that she has given us homework for the next day, to write the consequences of the Industrial Revolution.


  • Subway (AE): metro
  • Underground: metro (Br. E)
  • Tramway/ train: tranvía
  • Metalworking Industry: Industria metalúrgica
  • Stainless iron: acero inoxidable
  • Dye: tinte
  • Aluminum: aluminio
  • Production line/ taylorism: producción en cadena
  • Assembly line: cadena de montaje
  • Mass production: producción en serie
  • Buyer: comprador
  • Consumer good: bien de consumo
  • In instalments: a plazos
  • Merge: fusionarse
  • Cartel: cártel
  • Fine: multar

Monday, February 22, 2016

Monday 22th February 2016

Today in class of Social Science Paqui has copied a summary of Industrial capitalism in the blackboard and she has explained.


- Based on the ideas of Adam Smith's economic liberalism:

  • Economic relations guided by self-interest and the search for the maximum profit.
  • Produces and consumers interact in the market according to the law of supply and demand.
  • Means of production are in the hands of a few called capitalism and the rest of the people, the proletanas or workers have to work to survive.
  • The State doesn't have to intervene in economy. It only has to guarantee free economic relationships and private property.
- The need for financing the big industries contributed to the development of banking activities.
Banks facilitated payments, gave loans and were also direct investors in industrial activities.

-Development of public limited companies, whose capital was divided into stockes to distribute risk.

Them Paqui has explained the capitalism. Finally she has put in the blackboard the project of Lucía and Manal. 


Thursday, February 18, 2016

Some videos about industrial capitalism

Here you have some videos about Adam Smith's ideas and industrial capitalism. Some of them also include Marx's ideas. We'll study this next week.

On this link you have a short video that explains the concept of capitalism:

- Adam Smith's ideas, from the Political Theory channel: 

- Crash course, by John Green

This is a video made by a student and it's really complete, although there are some wrong ideas at the end, when she talks about the accomplishment of Marx's predictions:  

- And this is an explanation by David Harvey about crises of capitalism: 

18th February 2016

Hi there! Today, in Social Sciences lesson, we have reviewed the contents of the other day.  After that we have finished the scheme of the first Industrial Revolution:

The consequences of the first Industrial Revolution were: there was more production of products and  they needed to transport these products from factories to markets.
The main  inventions were the use of coke coal in a blast furnace to produce pig iron, invented by Abraham Darby; and the Bessemer converter, invented by Henry Bessemer. The Bessemer converter was used to convert the iron into stell.


After this, Paqui has explained the Transport Revolution:
The  cause of the Transport Revolution was the need for moving products from factories to markets.
The main changes in this revolution were the amelioration of traditional infrastructures, like roads, river canals… and the use of steam engine in some vehicles. The steam engine was used in the locomotive, invented by Stephenson and the steamboat, by Robert Fulton.


The consequences of the revolution were:
-The speed increased. Paqui has told that the people were afraid because the locomotive travelled at 20 kilometers per hour!
-Travel duration and expenses reduced.
-People’s trips and trade increased.

We have also spoken about capitalism: it was an economic system where the bourgeoisie were in charge of the means of production and the proletariat were in charge of the labour power. Both things together produce profit.

At the end of the lesson Paqui has told us that the first railway line in Spain was between Madrid and Aranjuez and it was for the royal family. Then, it arrived at Campo de Criptana in 1854.



Coke coal: carbón de coque
Heating power: poder calorífico
Blast furnace: alto horno
Pig iron: arrabio
Molten: fundido
Means of transport: medios de transporte (vehicles)
Transport network: red de transporte
Cockroach: cucaracha

Tuesday, February 16, 2016

16th February 2016

Hi there ! Today, in Social Sciences class, we have talked about several things. First of all, about the videos, because there are some people who can't upload their videos to Youtube, and Paqui has told us that there are some ways of reducing the capacity of the videos with Movie Maker or some other programmes. Then we have decided about the date of the exam of this unit, because there are some people who are going to take the exam instead of doing the project.

Later, we have studied the 1st Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was a big change in the way of producing products, which led to important changes in economy. 

It was produced because there was bigger demand for all types of products. The main inventions and innovations of this revolution were;

-The steam engine, which consisted of water, a steam and an engine. The water is boiled and the steam is used to move an engine. It was invented by James Watt


-Use of New Energy Sources, as the Hydraulic power and the mineral coal

-Creation of the Factory System:Concentration of machines and  workers in big factories and division of work. Working conditions got worse because people had to work to the rhythm of machines, because if they stopped, production also stopped. And, as people had to work not only from sunrise to sunset, but longer workdays they got really tired. And you had to work in that way, because if not, you got fired . Thus, working condintions were really bad. Men, women and children had to work there.


Working in the countryside was not as hard as working in factories, because you could work with your rhythm, and you could stop whenever you wanted.

Nowadays, these conditions are the same as people have in Asia. Most of our clothes are produced by people who have to work in these conditions.

Then, we have studied the industries that developed most. They were: The Textile Industry and the Iron and Steel Industry. In the textile industry, there were some important changing in the way of spinning and the way of weaving. Related with the changes of spinning, the Water Frame, the Spinning Jenny and the Mule Jenny were invented
A Water Frame
A Mule Jenny
A Spinning Jenny

Related with the changes in the way of weaving, they invented the Flying Shuttle and the Power Loom
A Flying Shuttle
A Power Loom

We were going to start talking about the changes in the Iron and Steel Industry, but as the bell rang, we haven't been able to do it. For next day we'll check the Transport Revolution and the consequences of the 1st Industrial Revolution.

Steam engine: Máquina de vapor
Factory system: Sistema fabril
Facility: Instalación
Patent: Patente
Charcoal: Carbón Vegetal
Shanty: Chabola
Shanty town: Barrio de chabolas
Greed: Avaricia
Revolving doors: Puertas giratorios
Cotton fabric: Tejido de algodón
Spin: Hilar
Spinning: Hilado
Weave: Tejido
Flying shuttle: Lanzadera volante
Shrink: Encoger

And that's all by today. Bye !!!

Monday, February 15, 2016

15th February 2016

Hello everyone, I'm Maria M.

At the beginning of the class, Paqui has told us how to upload the videos on the internet. Also Paqui has told us to do a new project: it consist to do a story about the industrial revolution, it is very similar to the travel journal we did in the last term.

Then Paqui has explained us the agricultural revolution which is the changes introduced by farmers to produce more.

This revolution happened because population growth created a bigger demand for all kind of products like food or raw materials

The main changes were
-Extension of cultivated lands; many farmers occupied communal lands and enclosed them to increase the land they cultivated.

-Inventions and innovations:
*Norfolk four field system of crop rotation
*Mechanization works with some invetions: seed drill (invented by Jethro Tull), Rotherham plough (invented by Joseph Foljambe) and thresting machine (invented by Andrew Makle).
-Selective breeding improve stockebreeding: more and better animals. Robert Bakewell improved.

The consequences of this revolution were;
-More population as a consequence of the increase of production and the improvements in diet.
-Surplus of farmers as a consequence of the mechanization of some nortes. These farmers had to migrate other places in serch of work,

At the end of the class Paqui has told us to do homework about the 1st industrial revolution:
-inventions and innovations
-industries that developed most

endosure: cercamiento
communal lands: tierras comunales
four fiel system of crop rotation: rotación cuaternal o sistema Norfolk
folder crops: cultivos forrajeros
manure: estiércol
rijegrass; ballico
threshing machine: trilladora mecánica
breed: criar, raza de animales

*The photos are from Paqui's presentation.


Sunday, February 14, 2016

Presentation of Unit 4 and new project suggestion

This is the presentation we are going to use for this unit:

My suggestion for a new project is the following: 

Write a small book with the story of a family of workers who live the industrial revolutions, the development of industrial capitalism, the new class-based society and the origins of the labour movement. Here you have some guidelines: 

- The members of the family must be at least three: one who lived at the end of the 18th century, one who lived in the first half of the 19th century and one who lived in the 2nd half of the 19th century: 

  • The first character should live the 1st Industrial Revolution: the demographic and agricultural revolution, migration to cities, the beginning of factory system, the development of the textile and iron and steel industries, the first innovations of transport revolution, the first workers' protests (Luddism, the appearance of class consciousness, mutual benefit societies and the first trade unions).
  • The second character should live the changes which led to the 2nd Industrial Revolution and explain the following content: the development of industrial capitalism, the new industries and new ways of organizing work and the new industrial concentrations and the development of the class-based society. As for the labour movement, this character should read about Utopian socialism or participate in New Lanark, New Harmony or the phalanstères and participate in the Chartist movement.  
  • The third character should tell about the consequences of the industrial revolutions, learn about the Marxist and anarchist ideas, choose one of these alternatives, take active part in the fight of the improvement of workers conditions and explain about International Workingmen's Association and its two stages.  

- The story should start in the countryside in Great Britain. Later your characters can travel or settle down in different places, but you have to be careful and keep historical accuracy. Here you have some timelines to keep historical accuracy in what you write: 

History of the Trade Unions in the United Kingdom: a very complete website. If you click on the different parts of the timeline, you will get a lot of information about strilkes, campaigns, workers' demands...:

Timeline on Labour: it includes information of both the United Kingdom and the USA:

A beginners' guide to the history of the British trade union and working class movements: It includes a summary of the most important keystones of the British labour movement:

History of the socialist movement in  the United Kingdom: an article from the British Wikipedia

- As the story has to take place in the United Kingdom, here you have some maps to locate your story: 


As a suggestion, your first character could emigrate from the countryside to Manchester, to work in a textile factory, or Sheffield, to work in an iron and steel factory. Your third character could work in  a metalworking  factory in Sheffield or emigrate to Liverpool and work in the shipyards. 

- As the story will have to be written on a family book during the 19th century, remember that the sheets of your book should look old. Here you have a video that explains how to age the paper

- And here you have some videos about how to make a book

- The project should include drawings or pictures of what you are explaining. Drawings are more original, but as photography was invented in the 19th century, you can include some pictures in the last part of the story. 

The deadline for this project will be the 7th of March.  Those who fail the project or prefer to take the exam will do it during that week. 

Thursday, February 11, 2016

11th of February

Hi guys. It's Lorena. Today in Social Sciences we've studied the Industrial Revolution.

We've started the lesson writing the index of Unit 4: The Industrial Revolutions and the labour movement. It was divided into three parts.
The first one is the Industrial Revolutions. It's again divided into several parts: definition and stages, the demographic and Agricultural Revolution, the 1st Industrial Revolution and the Transport Revolution, the development of industrial capitalism, the 2nd Industrial Revolution and the consequences of the Industrial Revolution.
The second part was called the new class-based society.
The third and last part we were going to study was the Labour movement. It was divided into the first workers' protests, the labour movement ideologies and the International Workingmen's Association.
After being award of how much content we had to study thanks to the revolutions happend in the human history, we've said that it's better that people don't revolt, just to avoid studying.
Paqui's said that revolutions lead to big changes. Sadly, most of them aren't pacific.
We're supossed to be in the 3rd Industrial Revolution, or at least this is what Paqui has told us. She's also said that there are many people who don't think so.


Paqui's explained the 2nd Industrial Revolution superficially. After that, she's written the first point of the unit. The main ideas I've understood were:
  • A revolution is a deep change
  • The Industrial Revolution changed the way of producing products.
  • It also changed society, economy and people's lives.
  • It had two stages.


The stages of the Industrial Revolution were:
  1. The first Industrial Revolution: It happend in Great Britain in the third part of the 18th century. It extended throughout the first half of the 19th century.
  2. The second Industrial Revolution: It spanded from the UK to all over the world. It happend in the 2nd half of the 19th century, and ended in 1945.

Spain industrialized in the 2nd Industrial Revolution, which was also the origin of Imperialism (the next unit)


The origin of the Industrial Revolution was the increase of population, there were less wars and more hygiene, with vaccines in medicine and a better diet, so it caused a reduction in mortality and high birth rates. Life expectancy increased so there were more demand for all kind of products.

In the Ancien Régime, there were high birth and mortality rates, but in the Industrial Revolution mortality rate decreased, while birth rate continued to be high. Life expectancy was very short until the Industrial Revolution.
After this explanation, we've done a small break and we've talked about the Spanish population. We've said that Spain has lost a lot of people. There are less births, more mortality and people are going abroad to improve their life, work or whatever. There wouldn't be enough young people to maintain the pensions. Well, this is something I don't care because I'm one of the ones who are going to life abroad.
After that, Paqui's written a scheme for demographic revolution. We've completed it orally. Cuases, changes and consequences. Not that difficult.
For homework, we have to do a similar scheme for agricultural revolution. For those who forget everything! Don't say I haven't warned you about what we have to do today!
At the end of the lesson, Paqui has distributed the exams. Everybody was very nervous.
After seeing our exams, we've watched a video where a man was explaining the industrial revolution on a whiteboard, just as we have to do in our projects.

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

Some short documentaries about the Industrial Revolution

Here you have some short documentaries about the new unit we are going to study: the Industrial Revolution.

- This one is a quick overview about the Industrial Revolution, including its consequences; 

- These videos are an explanation made by a teacher called Mr.Byrd:

- And this one includes the agricultural revolution, one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution:


Tuesday, February 2, 2016

Tuesday 2nd February 2016

Today in Social Sciences we have reviewed The French Revolution with interactive games.

At first we have reviewed the beginning of the Revolution and all the classmates have participated.

We have remenbered the year in which The Revolution had started and why it started.
We have had some problems to remember the contents of the unit but then we have answered most of the questions correctly .

We have failed some questions about the Constitutional Monarchy and the Legislative Assembly.


Also at the beginning, Andrei didn't want to go out to the witheboard and hehas made a lot of funny coments during all the lesson.

We’ll take the exam the next class and today we have realized that most of the people have started study ing because they don't nt to fail.

It's obvious that we are nervous for the exam and this causes like a ¨panic¨ reaction between us.
This reaction remembers us the two panic reactions during The French Revolution, when people attacked the prison of the Bas tille and the manors and castles in the countryside of all France.


    So, I can only say that these interactive games help us to review before the exam.

Here is the link of the games:

Good bye classmates and good luck for the exam.

Monday, February 1, 2016

Monday 1st February 2016

Hi It's Manal, today It's my turn to do the journal, so let's start!
At first we've seen some maps about the unification of Italy and Germany.We've also seen an interactive map where we can see the  processs of the German unification. We studied the Italy's unification the other day, so let's do a small review, then,  we will summarize the german unification.

The italian monarchy culminated on 1861, and Victor-Emmanuel was the first king of Italy. Victor Emmanuel was Amadeus I' father, who was the king of Spain.


Resultado de imagen para the german unification

Let's review the German unification!
The germany confederation was created after the Congress of Vienna, it included 38 estates wich shared language and a common past. Austria and Prussia were the most important states. Prussia industrialized very quickly. Prussia led the creation of a custom union, the Zollverein. All the German states joined it except Austria.


      Wilhem I of Prussia

Kaiser Wilhelm I. .JPG

Otto von Bismarck,He was Prussia's prime minister.

Otto von Bismarck y la Seguridad Social

The enemies of the German unification were France and Austria.There were three unification wars:

1st War against Denmark(1864) 
Denmark controlled Schleswing and Holstein. Austria and Prussia declared war to Denmark and conquered Schleswing and  Austria got Holstein.

2nd War against Austria(1866)The German states of the north joined Prussia against Austria. Prussia and its allies defeated Austria and all the German states of the north created the North German Confederation.

The North German Confederation is the red one.

3rd War against France (1870)
Spain was looking for a monarch:
Bismarck knew thhat he needed a common cause to unite all the German States and he looked for a casus belli against France, the traditional enemy of the Germans.
He manipulated a dispatch that expalained the result of a conversation between Kaiser Wilhem I and the French ambassador at Ems Spa.The conversation  about the possible candidacy of Leopold Hohenzollern to the throne of Spain had been friendly, but bismark manipulated the dispatch, sharpening the language and presentig the Frenhc ambassador's words as unacceptable.

 France had no other option than declaring war to Prussia.All the German states united against France, wich was defeated, the 2nd French Empire ended,  France lost Alsace and Lorraine and the 2nd Reich was proclaimed

Here you have the complete chart:


Customs union: unión aduanera
Tariffs: aranceles
Chancellor: canciller
Casus Belli: motivo de guerra
Spa: Balneario
witty: agudo