Tuesday, October 29, 2013


Hello everybody!

Today in the class of Social Sciences we have stayed on duty because Paqui hasn't come to the class because she has had personal problems.
At first, we have been waiting in the class of Social Sciences for a teacher.
After five minutes Carmen Teresa, the Language teacher, has come and we have been in the class.
Carmen Teresa has said that the room was very well decorated and she likes the decoration of the class: the ages of history, the maps...

Then, she has said that we have to continue with the homework of other subjects or Social Sciences.
After,she has asked who our language teachers are: the people of the class A have said that Cristina Mata , the people of the class B,Verónica and my class have said that Ángela.
Then, she has asked if we have started with the compound sentence.Some people have started and other people haven't.
After, I have started to do the schemes of renaissance art in the Hispanic Monarchy and the baroque art in the 17th century.

  • Architecture
Features: three styles:
Plateresque: architects imitated the work of silversmiths to decorate the facades of the buildings.
Classicism: use of classical elements: columns,pendiments, rounded arches...
Herrerian style: sober,austere,proportioned buildings, without decoration.
Artists and works: 
Pedro Machuca: Palace of Charles V (Granada),Courtyard of the Palace of Charles V.
Juan de Herrera: Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial.
  • Sculpture
Features: El Greco was the most important artist. Paintings were mainly religious.
Artists and works:
El Greco: The Burial of Count Orgaz, The Adoration of the Shepherds,The Despoling, Martyrdom of St. Maurice.

  • Architecture:
Decorative exuberance in buildings.
Main works of art: churches and square.
The overelaborated style created by José de Churriguera was called "churrigueresque".
Artists and works:
José de Churriguera: Altarpiece of San Esteban Convent.
Ribera: Old Hospice of Madrid.
Alberto Churriguera: Salamanca's main square.
Antonio Casas Novoa: Obradoiro Facade (Santiago de Compostela Cathedral).
  • Sculpture:
Religious themes for altarpieces or processional thrones made with polychromed wood.
Realistic and dramatic images (wounds, blood, expressions of pain and suffering.
Artists and works:
Gregorio Fernández: Pietà
Montañés: Saint Hieronymus.
Pedro de Mena: Penitent Magdalen.
Alonso Cano: Immaculate Conception.
  • Painting:
Exceptional painters in the 17th century: Golden century of painting.
Realism and religiosity.
Main commissioners: kings and the Church.
Oil on canvas,contrasts of light and shadow,complex compositions...
Artists and works:
José de Ribera: Archimedes.
José Ribalta: Christ with the Cross.
Zurbarán: Saint Serapion.
Murillo: Immaculate Conception.
Juan Carreño de Miranda: Charles II.
Diego de Silva y Velázquez: Old woman cooking eggs, Philip IV, Jesters and The Meninas.

See you!!

Monday, October 28, 2013


Hi classmates!!!!

Today in the class of social sciences
Paqui hasn't come bacause of personal subjets.
We have been in the library.
First we are in the class of social sciences wating for a teacher until Mariangeles casado from the department of biology  & Ana Margarita from the department of English, has come to take us to the library.
Then another tacher, Angel Ramon take list & no one has absented, then we have have started to do what ever we wont. then the bell has run & we go to the next class, art

See you!!!!

Saturday, October 26, 2013

Work for next week

Hello everybody, 

As Cristina told you, I'm going to be absent for some days. You will have to work autonomously, preparing the schemes and summaries of the last part of the Modern Era. This is what you will have to do: 

- Check the synoptic chart you had for Friday with the information of the presentation Dani included on his journal. 

- Summarize the information about the decline of the Hispanic Monarchy (17th century) and write a scheme including Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II's reigns. After this , summarize the information about economy and society in the Hispanic Monarchy during the 17th century. You can check your work with the information included on the PowerPoint presentation Maribel included on her journal. 

- Make two schemes about the art of the Modern Era in the Hispanic Monarchy, one for Renaissance art and another one for Baroque art. As we did when we studied Renaissance and Baroque, your schemes will have to include the following sections: architecture, sculpture and painting and every of these sections will have to include main features, artists and works. When you finish your work, check it with the help of this presentation. 

Please, use the time of the lessons to work and check it at home with the presentations. Look up for the new words you find and add them to your glossaries. If you have any questions, you can use the blog or the e-mail to ask me, but be patient, because I don't know when I will be able to answer. 

The people in charge of writing the journal next week are Jesús Herencia (Monday) and Marina Jiménez- Zarza (Tuesday). Please, write what you do on these days: who the guardia teacher is, what part of the work you do during the time of the lesson, the information you learn, include all the new words you find and one or several pictures related to the content. 

I wish to come back soon. See you. 

Friday, October 25, 2013

Friday, 25th October

¡Hi classmates!

Today in the class of Social Sciences Cristina Blanco has come to the class because Paqui has had some personal problems. First Cristina has given us some instructions about what to do that Paqui has sent to her in an email. We have to do a summary of:

- The 17th century in the Hispanic Kingdoms.
- Renaissance art in the Hispanic Kingdoms.
- Baroque art in the Hispanic Kingdoms.

We have spoken about the trip to London. Cristina has said that she'll going to inform us next week.

The previous day Paqui gave us for homework to do a scheme about: "Conquest, colonization, administration and colonial society of the Indies"

1. Conquest:

-It was a quick conquest due to:

  • The Europeans' military superiority of the conquistadors: horses, gunpowder, guns...
  • Ambitions of the conquistadors.
  • Impact of the European diseases over the indigenous people (Amerindians), like Viruela.

-It had three different stages:

  1. Conquest of the Antilles.
  2. Conquest of the Aztec Empire by Hernán Cortés.
  3. Conquest of the Inca Empire by Pizarro and Almagro.

-Other conquests and discoveries:

  1. Pedro de Valdivia conquered Chile.
  2. Orellana sailed the Amazon river.
  3. Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca explored Florida, Texas, California, Iguazú and the gulf of México.
  4. Vasco Núñez de Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean.
  5. Juan de Garay founded the city of Buenos Aires.
  6. In Asia, Legazpi and Urdaneta conquered the Philippines Islands.

2. Administration:

All the territories were annexed to the Crown of Castile (Language, laws, religion and culture) were introduced to the Indies.

-Some new institutions were created:

  1. Viceroyalties (Administrative division) : the Indies were divided into two viceroyalties: Nueva España and Perú. In the 18th century two more viceroyalties were created: New Granada and Río de la Plata.The viceroyalties were divided into provinces, ruled by governors. 
  2. Municipalities: Were ruled by cabildos (town councils).
  3. Courts of Justice (Audiencias): were established to administrate justice. 

- A new council was created:
It was created a new specific Council in Castile: the Council of the Indies. It's role was to advise the kings about the affairs of the Indies and to write down the Laws of the Indies.

- Creation of a trading house:
In 1503 the "Casa of contratación" was created in Seville, to control the trade with the Indies and to collect the royal fifth (Economic matters). The 20% of all the wealth and trading transactions made in the Indies, which was assigned to the Crown.

3. Colonization:

The main purpose of the colonists was the economic exploitation of the colonies.

- At first:
Their interest was focused only on precious metals, but later they showed interest in the lands. The lands were distributed among the colonists.

- New types of systems:
There were created two different types of systems for the exploitation of the Indies: 
  • The encomienda system: Every colonist received a plot of land and a number of Amerindians to work his lands. The colonist was obliged to teach the Amerindians the Catholic religion and to protect them in exchange of their work and payment of tributes.
  • The mita system: was used for the exploitaion of the mines: it consisted of forced work in the mines. In exchange for their work, the Amerindians received a salary established by the colonists.

The kings forbade slavery in the Indies and considered the Amerindians as subjects of the Hispanic Monarchy, but many colonists abused of them. Brother Bartolomé de las Casas denounced the exploitation of the Amerindians and defended them from the brutality of the colonists. He wrote a short account of the destruction of the Indies. His fight led to the passing of the encomienda system and forbade indigenous slavery. He was appointed "Protector of the Indians". 

4. Colonial society:

Different social groups lived in the Indies. Their position in the colonial society depended on their origin:

  • The Peninsulars: people who came from the Iberian Peninsula. They had economic and political power and they held the main posts in the administration.
  • The Creoles: were descendants of the colonists. As time went by, they started complaining about their subordinated position with respect to the Peninsulars.
  • The Mestizo: were a mixture of the colonists and the American Indians.
  • The Amerindians: were the native inhabitants of the Indies.
  • The Black slaves: bought from África, were sold in the depopulated territories to work in the platations. 

- Products from American origin:
Such as tomatoes, potatoes, pumpkins, corns, cacao, peanuts, sunflowers...

Some of them (corn and potatoe) were basic to reduce hunger and improve the Europeans' diet.

We have learnt some new words:
- Conquistadors: Conquistadores
- Royal fifth: Quinto real

See you!

Tuesday, October 22, 2013

Tuesday, 22nd October

Hi class!

I didn’t want to start with the legendary sentence, but I don’t have any other choice:
Today, in the class of Social Sciences we have done several things.
First, we have started reviewing the last part of the scheme about Philip II. His objectives were to defence the Catholicism and to preserve his Empire.

We have emphasized the revolt of the Low Countries: they revolted because the tax increased, the Protestants were persecuted and because Philip sent there the Duke of Alba to resolved it. The leader of the revolt was William of Orange. This revolt started in 1568 and finished with the independence of Holland in 1648. Philip II gave the Low Countries to his daughter Isabel Clara Eugenia, but she didn’t have children, so the Low Countries came back to the Hispanic Monarchy in 1621. 


Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Tizian_060.jpg


Source: http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/00659/news-graphics-2008-_659649a.jpg


Source: http://www.reprodart.com/kunst/alonso_sanchez_coello/infanta_isabel_clara_eugenia_hi.jpg

Also, we have explained the war against France: the French were defeated in the Battle of Saint Quentin (1557), but Philip continued interfering France: he took part in the war of religion, supporting Catholics and against the Huguenots (Calvinists).


Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Pieter_Snayers_Siege_of_Gravelines.jpg

Santiago has checked the confrontation of Ottoman Turks: they threatened the Mediterranean and a Catholic coalition, led by the Hispanic Monarchy was organized to confront them: The Holy League. It defeated the Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Lepanto. (1571).


Source: http://www.revistanaval.com/www-alojados/armada/batallas/Lepanto5.jpg

María Alcañiz has read the conflict with England: Elizabeth I supported the Protestants and their corsairs attacked the Hispanic fleets that came from the Indies. Paqui has explained us that corsairs or privateers used a Letter of marque (Carte Blanche) which permitted to attack this fleets. Philip II decided to invade England with the Invincible Armada, but the big navy sunk in 1588 before reaching the English coasts by a torment.


Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Spanish_Armada.jpg

Source: http://blogs.ua.es/elizabeth/files/2011/03/Elizabeth-I-von-England.jpg
Then, we have corrected the exercises. Paqui has corrected the exercise 13 and she explained us that the consequences of many wars were the bankruptcy in several times.
Marina has corrected the last one about the Price Revolution: it was a huge inflation provoked by the arrival of big amounts of precious metal from the Indies. Prices increased a lot, because there was not enough production to satisfy the demand. Many products were imported from Europe and the wealth of the Indies wasn’t used to develop a productive economy.
With this exercise, Paqui has explained us the partial acquitance and she has told us the example of Greece. This happen when you are a creditor and you can’t pay all the debt you have, but you only pay a part. There is a saying for this: “a bird in the hands is better than two in the bush”.

Finally, Paqui has written on the blackboard a scheme about the conquest, colonization and administration of the Indies that we have to complete at home. We have copied on our notebooks the first part: the conquest was quick due to the European military superiority and ambitions and impact of European diseases over the indigenous people. There were three stages:

-        Conquest of the Antilles.
-        Conquest of the Aztec Empire by Hernán Cortes.
-        Conquest of the Inca Empire by Pizarro and Almagro.

At the beginning of the journal you have the Power Point presentation to complete the scheme.

Now, I’m going to write the new words we have learnt:

-        To threaten: amenazar.
-        Threat: amenaza.
-        Fleet: flota.
-        Success: éxito.
-        Event: suceso, acontecimiento.
-        Corsair/privateer: corsario.
-        Letter of marque/Carte Blanche: patente de corso.
-        Failure: fracaso.
-        To swe: deber.
-        Default: quiebra, suspension de pagar.
-        Partial acquitance: quita de deuda.
-        Creditor: acreedor.
-       A bird in the hands is better than two in the bush: más vale pájaro en mano que ciento volando.
-        Bush: arbusto.
-        Saying: dicho, refrán.

Have a nice day, although it’s raining, and see you!

Monday, October 21, 2013

The horrifying Duke of Alba and April Fools Day in the Netherlands

Tizian 060.jpg

Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel (1507-1582), the third Duke of Alba, was one of the best generals who worked to Charles I and Philip II's orders. He participated in the conquest of Tunis and in the Battle of Mühlberg as well.  He was also in charge of the government of several parts of the Hispanic Monarchy, such as the Duchy of Milan, Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Portugal. But his role in the Low Countries was so authoritarian that he was known as the "Iron Duke" and his decisions contributed to the origin of the Black Legend of the Hispanic Monarchy. even at present he is considered to be as the Bogeyman in the Netherlands.

Philip II sent the Duke of Alba to the Low Countries in 1567  to re-establish public order after the Storm of the Images. The Duke created the Council of Troubles to punish the ringleaders of the religious protests. But the actions of this council were so drastic that people called it the Council of Blood: around 12,000 people were prosecuted and 1,000 of them were executed. This policy and the tax increase (10% tax on all sales) to supply the troops led to a general revolt in the Low Countries. The local nobles formed an army and started fighting against Alba. On the 1st April 1572 the Dutch rebels got their first importany victory against Alba's troops, when they seized the city of Brielle. This victory is taught to the Dutch children with a rhyming phrase: “Op 1 april verloor Alva zijn bril”, which means "On April 1, Alba lost his glasses" ("Brielle" sounds very similar to "bril", glasses, in Dutch). The 1st of April is April Fools' Day in the Netherlands. So the Dutch have a double commemoration on that day. 

File:´t Veroveren van Den Briel, op den eersten april des jaars 1572 (Jan Luyken, 1679).jpg

Capture of Brielle

Since then, the Duke of Alba´s name has been used to frighten the Dutch children and even at present he is considered to be as the Bogeyman in the Netherlands. His name is used to scare children or to threaten them when they don´t want to do something, such as eating the soup or going to bed early. They tell them: The Duke of Alba is coming!


Monday, 21st October

Monday, 21st October
Hello classmates!
Today we have started the class checking the scheme about Philip II that we had for homework. Siria has checked the first part of the scheme: territories he inherited and territories he added to his Empire. He inherited the rest of the Empire except for the Austrian territories and the title of Emperor, that were assigned to his uncle Fernando. He added Portugal and its colonies in Africa, Asia and America in 1580. The Philipinnes Islands were also annexed to the Empire in 1565. Paqui has explained the expression " the sun never set in his Empire" referred to Philip II, because he had territories in all the continents.
Then Maribel has checked the second part of the scheme: government.
-Philip established the capital city in Madrid.
-He took personal care of the government, he was helped by a professional bureaucracy and several councils: Council of War, Council of the Indies, Council of State...
Paqui has compared Charles I's government with Philip II's government. Charles I travelled a lot, on the other hand Philip II didn't move from the Iberian Peninsula, he didn't move from Castile. He considered Castile the most important territory. Philip built the Monastery of Escorial, he spent large part of his life there
because he thought that Madrid was dirty so he didn't like this.

The Monastery of Escorial.

Source: http://pendientedemigracion.ucm.es/info/giccucm/Escorial2011/about.html
(I have visited the Monastery and it's very interesting, if you have the oportunity, visit it)

Philip married  Mary I Tudor (his aunt) and Ana of Austria (his niece) this is the cause that explain he had handicap children. He also married María Manuela of Portugal and Elisabeth of Valois.

Mary I Tudor
Source: http://alpinesmusic.blogspot.com.es/2010/10/hans-holbein-tudors.html

Alonso Sánchez Coello 003b.jpg

Ana of Austria
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_of_Austria,_Queen_of_Spain

María Manuela of Portugal
Source: http://blogs.ua.es/elprudente/2008/12/29/primer-matrimonio-maria-manuela-de-portugal/

In this web you have more information about the marriage.

Queen Elisabeth of Valois. The pearl near her left ear was owned by actress Elizabeth Taylor.
Elisabeth of Valois

Source: http://staugustine.com/news/local-news/2012-01-01#.UmWKtXC8D4E

After, we have checked the las part of the scheme: policy.
Philip II wanted to be the defender of Catholicism and preserve all the territories. Charles I gave religious freedom (Augsburg Peace), do you remember? but Philip forbided other religions in the Empire. Religious intolerance caused many problems (especially in the Low Countries) and wars.

-Prohibition of Protestans in his kingdoms.
-He forbade the studens to study abroad, because he thought that they could be influenced and he wanted to prevent contact with other religions, other theorys.
-He reinforced the Inquisition to chase heretics.
-He forbade the import of books from Europe and if they captured you with forbidden books, you were sent to the Holy Inquisition.
-He established the concept of "blood cleanliness": the people who had Muslim or Jewish ancestors couldn't get posts in the administration.
Paqui has explained this concept with examples to understand better. She has remembered us Al-Andalus (we studied Al-Andalus in 2nd of ESO). Almost of the Iberian Peninsula have been in the hand of the Muslims so had Muslim ancestors.
The people forged their family books paying to get posts in the administration. They couldn't work in public institutions.
-Repression of the Moorish of Granada: prohibition of speaking Arabic, wearing their clothes and preserving their customs. This caused a revold in the Alpujarras (1567). The punishment was severe: 80,000 Moorish were exiled to other parts of the Peninsula (as far as possible).

-Revolt in the Low Countries: The Northern Provinces of the Low Countries, revolted against taxation demands authoritarianism of the governors (Duke of Alba) and religious intolerance. The revolt started in 1548 and finished in 1648. Philip gave the Low Countries to his daughter Isabel Clara Eugenia , but she didn't have children and the Low Countries came back to the Hispanic Empire in 1621. The leader of this revolt was William of Orange (the present king of Holland comes from him)
Paqui has said that in Holland to scare children the people said "the Duke of Alba is coming" because he was bloodthirsty.

Duke of Alba
Source: http://magazine.dutchancestrycoach.com/the-duke-of-alba-favorite-april-fool-of-the-dutch

-War against France: The French were defeated in Saint Quentin (1557), but Philip continued to intervene in France: he supported the Catholics in the religion wars in France, between Huguenots (Calvinists) and Catholics.
Henry of Navarre was a huguenot but he accepted to convert to Catholicism to become the king of France.
Paqui has explained us the expression "Paris is well worth a Mass" Henry IV of France,  here you have the information that Paqui wrote last year:


During the class we have added more words on the glossary:

to make a decision- tomar una decisión
proper- adecuado, correcto
proper Catholic- buen católico
council- consejo
blood cleanliness- limpieza de sangre
to exile- exiliarse (go to a different place)
to exile someone- desterrar
huguenot- hugonote (calvinista)
Paqui has tell us that we have to imporve our pronunciation. Now, I know how to pronunciate DECISION.
Finally the bell has rung and we have gone to the next class.

Pd: Sorry, I have written the journal as soon as possible, I hope that the next time won't be on Monday.
See you tomorrow.

Friday, October 18, 2013

Friday, 18th October

Hello classmates!!
Today we have started the class finishing the diagram of Charles I. Then Paqui has asked us some questions to review the theory that we saw on Tuesday, for example: What language spoke Charles I when he arrived de Iberian Peninsula? ; Where Charles I was born? With who came Charles I? ; What happen when he went to Germany to be elected emperor? And some more questions. With these questions we have revised the part of the diagram that we corrected on Tuesday. Paqui has taken advantage the whiteboard to explain us the diagram. For example the objectives and problems of Foreign Policy.
Then Paqui has done a draw in the blackboard to explain the Augsburg peace in 1555: this agreement theoretically consecrated  religious freedom in the Holy Roman Empire: every prince could choose the religion he preferred, but all the citizens of his prince (CUIUS REGIS, EIUS RELIGIO). This agreement meant the end of religion wars in the Empire, but intolerance continued.
After that Paqui has showed us some pictures of Charles I. 

She has started explained us Felipe II (1556-1598): political centralization increased with Felipe II. He didn’t call the Cortes and almost all the decisions were made by him. He was helped by a professional bureaucracy and by several councils (Council of War, Council of State, Council of the Indies…). Although Felipe II didn’t inherit the Holy Roman Empire, the territories under his rule were immense. He added Portugal and its colonies in Africa, Asia and America in 1580. The Philippines Island were also annexed to the Empire. It was the largest Empire ever known. But Felipe II considered the Peninsula as the centre of his monarchy. This is why his empire was called Hispanic Empire. He had some objectives like defense of Catholicism (he refused to give his subjects religious freedom and he forbade Protestantism in his kingdoms. This caused huge problems, especially in the Low Countries), preservation of his Empire (this led to several wars: wars against France, Revolt in the Low Countries, Confrontation with the Ottoman Turks and Conflict with England). There is a sentence that indentify him: THE SUN NEVER SET IN HIS EMPIRE.

After that we have spoken a lot and Paqui has got angry and she has put on the blackboard a diagram of Felipe II for complete at home. We have to complete with the territories he inherited and territories he added to his Empire, government and policy (objectives, defense of Catholicism and preservation of the Empire). Also we have to do the exercises 13 and 14 from the page 100.

Then the bell has rung and we have gone to de break team. 
Good weekend! See you on Monday!

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Tuesday, 15th of October, 2013

Hello classmates!
Today in the class of Social Sciences we have done several things. First Paqui has checked that every person of the class have done the scheme of Charles I. After Paqui has showed some photos that she put on the blog.

James I of England

Then Maria Sanchez has ridden the part of the heritage of Charles I, this point cosist in the territories that Charles inherited of Philip the Handsome, Joanna The Mad, his grandparents Isabel of Castile, Fernando of Aragón, Maximiliam of Austria and Mary of Burgundy. These were the territories he inherited:

-From his mother Joanna: The Crown of Castile, The Canary Islands, Melilla and Oran in the north of Africa, the Indies, Burgundy, the low countries and Luxemburg.

-From his father Philip The Handsome: The Crown of Aragon, Sicily, Sardinia and Naples.

After this Paqui has explained in the blackboard the internal problems of the empire. This problems began that Charles spoke Castilian. He brought many Flemish Noblemen with him and he gave them important posts in the administration. These were the causes of the revolts that broke out against him in Castile and Aragón:

-Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile: It started in 1520. Many cities revolted against the king due to the new taxes they had to pay. Many nobles supported the revolt. The leaders of the revolt were Bravo, Padilla and Maldonado.The king made an agreement wiht the Castilian nobles and together fought against the Comuneros. They were defeated definitely in the battle of Villalar in 1521.

-Revolt of the Germanías in Valencia and Mallorca: It was a revolt of craftsmen and peasants who wanted to have access to posts in the municipalities and an improvement in the conditions of renting their lands. The king signed an alliance with the nobles and together they defeated the revolted in 1523.

After the internal problems we have followed with the problems in the empire. Charles V was elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. His main objectives were:
-To defend the Empire against its enemies
-To defend Catholicism against Protestants and Muslims
In the empire was involved in several wars:
-Against France, his main enemy in Europe: he fought against Francis I, king of France, in several wars. France was defeated in the Battle of Pavia in 1525. After this, Charles annexed Milan to the Empire.

-Against the Mulisms: he confronted in two fronts:
  • In the Mediterranean Sea: he fought against the Barbary Pirates. He occupied Tunis in 1532 to avoid their expansion
  • In the East of Europe: he stopped the expansion of the Ottoman Turks in Hungary.

In this part Paqui hasn't explained all the conflict because we hasn't had time to correct. This conflict developed in the Holy Roman Empire as a consequence of Lutheran Reformation. At first Charles tried to make an arrangement with the Lutherans, he had to fight against them. He defeated the Lutheran Princes in the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547.

Today we have learnt too some new words like:
  • To take out: quitar
  • In dirt: en sucio
  • Louse/Lice: Piojos
  • Currency: Moneda
  • Trust: Confiar
  • Regent: Regente
  • To Bribe: Sobornar
  • Barbary: Berberisco
  • To defy: Desafiar
  • To defeat: Derrotar
At the end of the class Paqui has given us to review the notes of the class and when the bell has rung we have gone to the break time. See you tomorrow!

Monday, October 14, 2013

Monday, 14th of October, 2013

Hello classmates! 
Today in social sciences we have done several things. First I have gone to Paqui's table to justify an absence. Today we have finished with the Baroque art. 
Paqui has said the last day we were watching different concepts of beauty, all the details about the paintings of Rembrandt. This morning Paqui looking information about "Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp" of Rembrandt. We have talked about it that in this painting the doctor (surgeon) is doing an autopsy to this body and the people around were seen to them, that were a group of people of the same proffession.  Autopsies in this period were done in theatres room because they were public. The corpse belonged to a hung criminal. The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, tells that was the type of society there was in this period.

-The Night Watch (La ronda de noche),Rembrandt This name aren't the real name of this photo, the real name is "The Company of captain Frans Banning Cocq and lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch preparing to march out", you can see the puppet, the painting is also a portrait. All the people paid to appear in the painting.

 -Syndics of the Drapers' Guild, Rembrandt

-The Slaughtered Ox, Rembrandt

-The Lacemaker, Vermeer
The Lacemaker the woman is making lace

-Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window, Vermeer.

This is the typical painting with the window and the ligh pass through of them. 

-The Milkmaid, Vermeer
The Milkmaid:  this was the Dutch favourite painting.

-Girl with a Pearl Earring, Vermeer

-Allegory of the Art of Painting, Vermeer

-The Geographer, Vermeer

Paqui has  taught the painting of  "The Menines", "The Guernica" and "Venus with a Mirror" in the new decoration of the class made by Paqui and Mari Carmen Lázaro, and she has said that these paintings have different opinions. 

All these paintings represent the light of the atmosphere. We have compared all these paintings with the paintings of Caravaggio (that are more religious) Flander's paintings...etc.

With this information we have finished the Baroque Art.

Paqui has started a new powerpoint presentation about "The Iberian Peninsula in the 16th and 17th century" :

After we have started a new point called: " The Iberian Peninsula in the  16th and 17th century" and we have remembered the 16th century in the Iberian Peninsula, the Hispanic Empire that we studied in 2º E.S.O. and about the Catholic Monarch (Isabella and Fernando and the song of Tanto Monta Monta Tanto). Paqui has said that there is a TV series of Isabella, we have remembered that the different territories that Aragón and Castile. They have five childrens but the heir and the only survivor was Joana the Mad (Juana la Loca) and she was married with Philip the Handsome ( Felipe el hermoso) and they have a son that was Charles I that heir of a inmense empire. Today we have started with the events that happened during the reign of the Charles I, Philip II, Philip III, Philip IV and Charles III.
3.-The Iberian Peninsula in the 16th and 17th century.


     *Charles I (V in the Holy Roman Empire)
     *Philip II


     *Philip III
     *Philip IV
     *Charles III

And Paqui has explained that Charles II was mentally and phisically disabled (Luis has said that one person of the class are disabled, all the class have laughed) and Paqui has showed some photo of Charles I (he was very ugly). 

This happened because their ancestors have sons with members of the same family.  He didn't talk properly till he was 4 years old and he didn't walk well since he was 8 years old. At least Charles I tried to rule because his father and his grandfather had other preferences (women, party...).

Paqui has showed some pictures of the royal family and she has said that they were dressedin black because it was the period of "The Counter Reformation" .

We have looked a map about Charles I's heritage where the territories were represent in different colours.

In the finish of the class we have copied a scheme about Charles I that we have to complete with the information of the pages 92 and 93. 

The scheme is this:

Charles I :
-Internal problems:
-Problems in the Empire:
Today we have learned some new words:

*Hygiene: higiene

*The night watch: La ronda de noche

*Parade: Desfile

*Puppet: Mascota

*Lacemaker: Encajera

*To sew: Coser

*Poll: Encuesta
*Dutch: Holandés

*Joanna the Mad: Juana La Loca

*Philip the Handsome: Felipe el hermoso

*Disabled: discapacitado

*On someone's behalf: En nombre de...

Finally, the bell has rung and Paqui has given us for homework to do a scheme about Charles I with the pages 92-93. Today's class has been noisy, we should pay more attention. 

Have a nice day!!

See you tomorrow :)