Monday, December 16, 2013

We're closed

Due to the lack of interest of this year students towards learning, we've decided to close this blog for the moment. We´ll try to come back the next school year. Goodbye. 

Friday, December 13, 2013

13th December, 2013

Today in the class of Social Sciences we have done the exam of the Unit 2. The 18th century: Crisis of the Ancien Régime and the Bourbons in Spain.
The questions of the exam are the next:
1. We have to match persons of this century with the things that they done Example: Denis Diderot-philosopher that created the Encyclopedia.
2. Define the Ancien Régime and explain its main features.
3. Definition of Enlightenment and its main features. Then name 2 philosophers of the Enlightenment and the things they defended.
4. In this question we have to choose two of the four questions that Paqui put in the exam. I choose the independence of the United States of America and the constitution of the U.S.A.
5. In this question we have to choose 4 of the 6 words and define it. I choose Enlightened despotism, physiocracy and Nueva Planta Decrees, the other definition I can't done because I don't have time.

For me the exam was very long but its not difficult. I think that I have to pass the exam in the other questions I put all the things except some word that I  forgot.

See you!!

Tuesday, December 10, 2013

10th of December

Hello classmates!

Today in social sciences we have done several things. First Paqui has remembered Charles III. His father was Philip V and had two wife : Mary house of Savoy and Isabella of Farnese (his mother). Mary house of Savoy had two son : Louis I (1724)who reigned for 6 months in 1724 and Ferdinand (1746-1759) who had no children. The other wife was Isabella of France and she had a son: Charles III (1759-1788) king of naples for 20 years and influenced by Enlightenment. His main was Esquilache.


Then, we have continued with the ESQUILACHE RIOTS: this occurred at the begginning of his reign, Charles III had some problems with the privileged. The privileged instigated the people's revolt using the new hygiene and public order ordinances as a pretext. The criminals covered themselves and It was difficult to identify them. The public order ordinances were anexcuse for the region and the privileged manipulated the people.

  • The real causes: the privileged were angry with the ministre discontent of the privileged for the reforms Esquilache (Italian) was introducing.
  • Excuse that started the riots: new hygiene and public order ordinances (including the ordinances about clothes).
  • Consequences: Charles III dismissed Esquilache. Charles III expelled the Jesuits (accused of having participated in the riots) in 1767, accusing them of being responsible for the protsts but he didn't stop the reforms.

(cutting cloaks and brims)


Paqui has drawn a hat in the blackboard and has explained that the brim is the visor of the hat.

Then, she has explained again the Enlightened Despotism and we have continued with Charles III's reforms:
ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM: Some European monarchs adopted some ideas of the Enlightenment and introduced some reforms in their kingdoms, but, at the same time, they tried to preserve their absolute power. They made administrative, educational and economic reforms, but without asking their subjetcs for their opinion: they did "everything for the people, but without the people". They didn't touch the structure of power or the privileges of nobles and clergy. This is why the reforms they made were insufficient.
Representative of Enlightened Absolutism in Spain. Many of his minister were enlightened: Campomanes, Olavide, the counts of Aranda and Floridablanca.



Then we have continued with the enlightened reformism and Paqui has done a table in the blackboard about this. The table has divided into four parts:
REINFORCEMENT OF THE ROYAL POWER: in this part we have included:

  • Expulsion of the Jesuits(1767).
ECONOMIC REFORM: in this part we have included:
  • Colonization of new lands (in order to increase food production and improve agriculture).
  • Limitation of the Mesta privileges (in order to increase food production and improve agriculture). 
  • Support to economic development throuth the Economic Societies of the Friends of the Country.
  • Reports on the agrarian reform.
  • Free trade with the Indies (all ports allowed).
  • Liberalization of the price of wheat.
EDUCATIONAL REFORM: in this part we have included:
  • Educational reforms: primary schools and reform of university studies.
SOCIAL: in this part we have included:
  • Decree declaring honesty of all professions.
ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM: in this part we ha included:
  • Administrative reforms in the Indies (2 more viceroyalties) Nueva Granada and Rio de la Plata.

All these were enlightened reform and all these reforms were limited and didin't questions the structure of the Ancien Régime.


Later, Paqui said that Charles III created during his reign:

File:Iglesia del Cristo de San Carlos del Valle.jpg

San Carlos de Valle, in Campo de Montiel.

La Carlota, Jaen.

And we have remember mesta. This definition we have studied in 2nd of ESO. Mesta was an organization that protect the rights of the stockbreeders in Castile.

Later, we have finished with the Charles IV (1788-1808). He was Charles III’s successor. When Charles III died, his son Charles IV became the new king. He was not gifted to rule and Charles III adviced him to keep the Counts of Aranda and Floridablanca as ministers. He chose a minister who was the lover of his wife.
His rule was conditioned by the French Revolution.


At the end of the class, some students have asked for the doubts of the exam. The exam will be the next Friday. It is the last examen of the term and in this exam include:
1-The Ancien Régime and changes in the 18th century.
2-Enlightenment and Enlightened Depotism.
3-Independence of the 13 colonies of North America and the creation of the USA.
4-The 18th century in Spain:
     A)The War of Spanish Succession.
     B)The first Bourbons.
          1.Centralist Abolution: Philip V and Ferdinand Vi.
          2.Enlightened Despotism: Charles III.

The bell has rung and the class has finished for today.

Some words of the vocabulary:
  • cloak- capa.
  • brim- ala del sombrero.
  • streetlights- farolas.
  • stand by- parón.
  • social- decree declaring honesty of all profesion.
Paqui in the break has helped me with for the journal. THANK YOU PAQUI.
The class of today was very complete and interesting. Luck for the exam, classmates.

See you the next day!

Monday, December 9, 2013

Monday, 9th of December, 2013

Hello classmates!

Today in Social Sciences we have done several things. First Paqui has said that the last day we have seen "The War of Spanish Succession" (1700-1713). This war is about: When Charles II died without direct successors, he left his kingdoms to Philip of Anjou, Louis XVI's grandson. Different european powers disagreed with his testament.

Austria, the Low Countries, Portugal and Great Britain were against the french influence over the Hispanic Monarchy and supported Archduke Charles of Austria.

In the Iberian Peninsula:

-Castile supported Philip of Anjou.


-Aragon supported Archduke Charles, because they feared the French absolutism.

Development of the war:

-Equal forces on both sides.
-The British invaded Gibraltar and Minorca.

-"Quan el  mal ve d'Almansa a tot el món alcança" was refered to the Battle of Almansa this war and the Aragonese and Valencian troops were defeated in Almansa 1707.


And Paqui has asked a question that is: What happened in 1713?

And in this moment Cristina Blanco has come to remember the people that go to London that this Thursday they have to go with Cristina to pay a part of the money of the trip.

Later we have continued with the question of Paqui and them Paqui has explained that: In 1713 the Archduke Charles inherited the heir of the Emperor of Austrian Empire when the Emperor died.

Paqui has explained that when the Treaty were signed in Europe, the war continued in Catalonia for one year more and the Catalans were defeatedonthe 11th of September 1714



After this we have started the Treaty of Utrecht:

-Philip V was accepted as King of Spain (1st King of the Bourbon Dynasty). He had to renounce to his rights to the Crown of France.

-All the European Posessions of the Hispanic Monarchy were for Austria and Savoy.

-Great Britain kept Minorca and Gibraltar and they got two rights in the Indies, which broke the Spanish Monopoly in their colonies: the assiento and the Ship of Permission.



The territories that Spanish Monarchy lost were Milan, Naples, Sardinia, Flanders. The territory added to Savoy was Silicy, and the territories awared to House of Bourbon kept were Spain and its colonies in America, Asia and Africa.


When we have finished the War of Spanish succession, we have started with the Bourbons in the 18th century that there were 5 monarchs of the House of Bourbons and Paqui has done this scheme:


-Centralist Absolutism was represented by:

+ Philip V (1700-1746)

+Louis I (6 months 1724)

+Ferdinand VI (1746-1754)

-Enlightened Despot:

+Charles III (1759-1788)

-Crisis of the Ancien Régime:

+Charles VI (1788-1808)

Paqui has said that we can complete this scheme with the information and definitions.

PHILIP V (1700-1746): He imposed absolutism, inspired on France's political system:

-Nueva Planta Decrees: elimination of the particular laws and institutions of the Crown of Aragon.

-All the Castilian institutions were extended to all the territory:

+The Cortes of Castile became Cortes of Spain, but they were barely called.

+Corregidors in the municipalities.

+Audiencias (Court of justice)

Them Paqui has looked in wordreference the meaning of cyclothymic-> Ciclotímico

María Alcañiz has asked to Paqui that "Why the Philip V's portrait (Xátiva museum) was upside-down? Paqui has answered Philip V's portrait is upside down not as a consequence of a revolution, but because in 1943 someone in Xàtiva decided to hung Philip V´s portrait upside down to remember the punishment the city suffered and as a revenge upon Philip V. This was because after the Battle of Almansa Philip V´s troops occupied the city of Xàtiva on the 6th July 1707 and Philip V ordered to set fire to the city. The city burned for 8 days (this is why its inhabitants are called the socarrats (burned).The name of the city was changed to Colonia Nueva de San Felipe or simply San Felipe and the city was repopulated with people loyal to Philip V. That's why someone in X'ativa, remembering the past, decided to punish the king hunging his portrait upside down, and she has explained that one week ago in Catalonia some people put the king's portrait's upside-down because  the king is Philip V's descendent and the people who demand independence for Catalonia date back to 1714 and relate the present king as representative of what Philip V did PHILIP V'S PAINTING IN XÁTIVA MUSEUM



PHILIP V'S SUCCESSION: Philip V had frequent depresive episodes. He abdicated in favour of his son Louis in 1724. Louis I reigned only for six months because he died. Paqui has explained me that she think that was by the samllpox.

When Louis I died, Philip V was forced to return to the throne, but he left everyday rule on his secretaries until his death in 1746.

His son Ferdinand VI (Son of his 1st wife, Mary Louise Gabrielle of Savoy) became the new king.



Paqui has added that Philip V had two wifes and the second was very strict and Paqui think that this woman was very ambitious! Also that the Bourbons had the same problems with imbreeding as the Austria dynasty, because they got married with people of their same family and there were always members of the royal family with mental or physical problems. Philip V and Ferdinand VI are examples of these problems
FERDINAND VI (1746-1759)


Some competent ministers worked during his reign: the marquis of Ensenada (Cadastre: I said that one of the punishments to the territories of the Crown of Aragón was the creation of a unique tax everybody had to pay, depending on their properties. This tax had different names in every kingdom: única contribución in Aragón, equivalente in Valencia, talla in Mallorca and cadastre in Catalonia. Ensenada wanted to extend this tax to Castille and that's why he promoted a big survey to collect data of all the kingdom. They collected a lot of information, but the privileged opposed this tax and finally it wasn't applied in Castile.) and Carvajal. They modernized the navy and tried to control trade with the Indies.



In Castile the nobles didn't pay these taxes because they said that were privileged people, but in the rest of kingdoms the nobles paid taxes.

His succesor was his half brother Charles. He had been king of Naples for 20 years before arriving Spain.

 He became crazy when his wife died. He didn't was buried in the Escorial because he didn't had childrens with his wife Barbara.

- Charles III had been king of Naples, where he was influenced by the ideas of Enlightenment and he wanted to modernize the kingdom, with the help of some enlightened ministers, like Floridablanca, but only in some aspects, because he was an enlightened despot. 

Charles III :
He had a lot of problems, he was an unhygienic, he didn't changed his clothes.

-Representative of Enlightened Absolutism in Spain. Many of his ministers were enlightened: campomades, Olovide, the Counts of Aranda and Floridablanca.



-At the beginning of his reign, he had problems with the privileged: ESQUILACHE RIOTS: the privileged instigate the people's revolt using the new hygiene and public order ordinances as a pretext.

Charles III dismissed Esquilache and expelled the Jesuits (accused of having participated in the riots), but he went on with reforms.

It was similar of revolt of Comuneros and revolt of Germanías, because it was partly due to the reaction against the foreign ministers.
Some date that has been funny for the class was that the creator of Pocoyo is a descendent of Floridablanca and also the actually king is very similar to Charles IV.

This an interesting link about Philip V and Ferdinand VI's mental problems:

After these Paqui has used Carlos (Esquilache) and Dani, Guille and Luis (Nobles) to explain the Esquilache Riots . The bell has rung and the class has finished for today.

Some new important words:

-Saying: dicho

-Bipolar: bipolar

-Cyclothymic: ciclotímico

-Deaf-mute: sordomudo

-Rarely: rara vez

-Intendant: intendante

-Cadastre: Catastro

-Register: registro

-Survey: encuesta

-To charge taxes: cobrar impuestos

-Esquilache Riots: Motín de esquilache

-To instigate: to provoke

-To issue: publicar

-To issue a decree: publicar un decreto

The class of today has been very complete! Bye classmates!

See you tomorrow:) kisses!

Tuesday, December 3, 2013

Friday,3th December 2013

Hi everybody! 

Today has started the class giving the notebooks to the people that give to her on monday. After this Paqui has showed to the class the Alicia's Journal, also Paqui has included a new video in the blog and she has showed to the class, this video consist in the three branches of government (executive, legislative and judicial).

Paqui has explained the Bill of the Rights with her 10 amendments, after has included to 27 amendments, also during this period the people couldn't drink alcohol, this law was called Prohibition (Ley Seca). The mafias have transported alcohol to the people that like it and couldn't drink, like in the great TV serie "Broadwalk Empire".

Paqui also has explained the Charles II's testament with a post of 2012. 

Paqui has resumen with his words the War of Spanish Succession and has given to the class 15 minutes to do a scheme of this.

In the middle of the class Bea has arrived to the class and Paqui has joke Bea and all the class laught a lot. Also Artura, Jesus  and Luis has disturbing me because are very "funny".

Also we have copied some new interesting words in the glossary:

-Prohibition: Ley Seca
-To poison: Envenenarse
-To date: Salir con alguien
-To have a date: Tener una cita
-Seizure: Ocupación

See you!!


Monday, December 2, 2013

A very good video to understand the division of powers in the USA

As we have studied today, the USA were the first country to write a Constitution and include the division of powers to prevent abuse. On the following video you can learn about the three institutions that hold power in the USA through a rap. Enjoy!

Some interactive maps about the American War of Independence

If you click on the map below, you will have access to a very detailed explanation of the American Revolutionary War. This resource comes from the following website:

Monday, December 2, 2013


Today in class of Social Sciences we have done several things, first Paqui has given us the workbook. Later, she has said to me that today is my turn to do the journal.

After that, Paqui has said that we are going to correct the things she has given us for homework, the previous situation, causes, development and consequences of the independence of the 13 colonies of  N. America and creation of the USA (point 4 of this Unit)

First, Paqui has explained the reason, some of the reason was that they couldn't express their oppinion or oppose to the laws against their interests. Taxes increase and they couldn't buy or sell their products to other places. The influence of the ideas of Enlightenment had also an important influence over the colonist.

Then she has wxplained the development with the  Boston tea Party, this was a protest in 1773, tea revolt started as a reaction against the tea tax. Some colonists dressed like indians assaulted the British ship of the East India Company at Boston harbour and threw all the tea cargo away to the sea. The British strongly repressed the revolt and discontent grew. They closed the harbour, so the products had to be moved to another place and the products was more expensive. Revolutionary war (1775-1783) , in 1775 started the battles of Lexington and concord. Here Paqui has got in blank jeje. France and Spain supported colonist met at the second Continental Congress and assumed government. On the 4th of July of 1776 the delegates of the 13 colonise signed the Declaration of independence of the United States of America in Philadelphia. George Washington, commander in chief of the army defeated the B. in Saratoga and Yorktown. In this period all men were equal and free and had the same rights King George hasn't fulfilled his rule with respect to the north American Colonies and the colonies have decided to break their political connection with Great Britain. After this defeated, the British recognized the independence of the USA in the treaty of Paris in 1783.

At finally she has explained the consequences, in 1787 the representatives of the USA wrote the first constitution in the history, where a lot of people ere exclused like women, poor people, narive Americans...In the constitution were where all the principles of liberalism were refleted:

-A representative governmet, chosen by the citizens, a Republic.
- Division of power: the executive (president with large amounts of power) legislative(congress and senate) and judicial, and system of checks and balances to avoid abuse of power.

In this period they only had the dolar like the only currency. They had to closed the nasa, because they couldn't pay. Each state had their rules.

Also we have copied some news words for the vocabulary:

-stamp: sellos
-lead: plomo
-candle: vela
-tea: té
-trade monopoly: monopolio comercial
-metropole: metrópoli
-amendment: enmienda
-harbour: puerto
-shortage: escasez
-draft: borrador
-supreme court of justice: tribunal supremo
- bail:  fianza


Friday, November 29, 2013

29th of November of 2013

Hi everybody!
Today Paqui has started the class saying when we have to give her the notebooks. Then we have remembered the things we did last day and we have checked the scheme we had for homework. We have started with Voltaire and wth his phrase "I don't agree you, but I will defend you right express your opinion in any circunstance".


After we have told about Montesquieu: he defended the division of powers (lesgilative, ejecutive and judicial). 


We have talk about the importance of the division of powers for people. We have finished with the Swiss philosopher Rosseau who defended the institutions that protected the people's rights to hadn't a caothic situation the State Government. 
Jean Jacques Rosseau

He also defended the Social contract and the General Will, that was a will that also defended that people had all the powers. Afterwords we have seen the economic thinking that comprends the phisiocracy. The physiocrats considered agriculture was th main economic activity. The Enlightened Depotism people like Catherine II of Russia,, Frderic II of Prussia or Charles III who introduced reforms in their kingdoms with a paternalist attitude.
When we have finished with this point we have started the new point of the unit, The Independence of the 13 states of North America and the creation of the USA. Then Paqui has said tat it is a typical question for the history exam. 

The Independence of the Thirteen colonies of USA

We have done a table with the following points: previous system, causes development and consequences, to know better this part of the history. We have to complete it for the next Monday. At the end of the class Paqui has done a map with different territories in this moment.

The words we have added to the glossary are:
-Freedom of speech: libertad de expresión 
-To avoid: evitar, impedir
-To cede: ceder
-Social Contract: Contraro Social 
-Hypothetical agreement: hipotético supuesto pacto
-Committment: compromiso
-In jail/ prison: en la cárcel 
-Physiocracy: fisiocracia 
-Free trade: libertad de comercio 
-Paternalist: paternalismo
-Depotism Enlightened: Despotismo Ilustrado
-To aware for: Ser consciente de

 See you as earliest as possible!

A video about Montesquieu's separation of powers

This is a short video that explains the concept of separation of powers developed by Montesquieu and his influence on the USA Constitution. 


Some schemes about the social contract

 Rousseau's Social Contract

The social contract was one of Jean Jacques Rousseau's most spread ideas and the title of one of the books he wrote. But many of the ideas of the enlightened philiosophers had originated in the 17th century. John Locke was one of the most influential thinkers in the development of the political ideas of several enlightened philosophers. Rousseau's idea of the social contract had been also explained by Locke. Here you have a scheme based on Locke's ideas which summarizes this concept. 

And this is another scheme that includes what will happen if the government/ State doesn't carry out its part of the "contract": people will have the right to replace or overthrow the government: 

The source of both images is the following:

Prints from the Encyclopedia and a recent exhibition

Here you have a beautiful video about the original edition of the Encycopledia. It includes prints with drawings to explain the different concepts included in this magnificient work. 150 people worked under Denis Diderot and Jean Rond D' Alembert's direction and among them there were illustrious enlightened philosophers, such as Montesquieu or Rousseau. In my opinion the Encyclopedia was one of the best ideas in the history of humanity.

There has been a recent exhibition about Diderot and the Encyclopedia in Valencia. Here you have some links with extra information about it:

Tuesday, November 26, 2013

Hi everybody!

Today in the class of Social Sciences Paqui has started the class asking us about some videos of the blog about the Enlightenment because they can help us with the American or British accent. This videos explain some features about the Enlightenment. 
Then we have started correcting the scheme about the features of Enlightenment:
  • Absolute faith in Reason, as the best way to understand the world.
  • Rejection of everything that couldn't be explained through Reason: the authority principle, superstitions, traditions... The authority principle was based on respecting the authority of people because someone has told you that you have to respect it. Some of these traditions were inhuman and so violent.
  • Optimism and trust in progress. People thought that future will be better than present.
  • Knowledge as the basis of happiness. Ignorant people could't be happy, they could seem happy but in fact it was different. This depends on the idea of happiness of everyone and on expectations. In conclusion, individual happiness is not colective happiness.
  • Trust in education considered to be the best way to improve the living conditions of the people. The idea of educating people came from Enlightenment because the countries needed educated people.
  • Religious tolerance: no religion was superior to another and Reason was enough to establish a morality code to determine how to behave. People had to respect the religions, no religion was better and people who didn't want to choose a religion had to follow some morality sules. These were rules of behavior that you follow in a society. 
  • Criticism of absolutism and the estates society and defense of freedom and equality of all the human beings.
  • Etilist movement reserved to educated people.
Immanuel Kant "Dare to know"was one of the most important philosophers of Enlightenment

After Paqui has explained some things about the Encyclopedia: It was another way of transmission. This  was a project of two French philosophers: Denis Diderot and Jean Rond D'Alambert.
People compiled all knowledge of their time in one book and they asked the main scientists and philosophers to write articles for their project.

Encyclopedia means "circular knowledge or learning". At first people wanted to compile Knowledge and it appeared  during the Roman Empire by Pliny the Elder with Historia Naturalis.In the 7th century Saint Isidore of Seville, a bishop of the Visigothic Kingdom and wiseman, wrote the Etymologiae. The Chinese also wrote their own encyclopedic book in the 15th century called Yongle Encyclopedia. Finally a thrird copy was made ordered by the Chinese Emperor.

In 1728 a British publisher, edited Cyclopedia: An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. This book was the precedent of the French Encyclopedia. a French publisher, wanted to translate the Cyclopedia but he completely changed the original project, because they asked different scientists and thinkers of their time to write articles about very different topics.The Encyclopedia was very popular and original. Diderot wrote on the Encyclopedia his main objective, which was "to change the way people think". That´s why the Encyclopedia has been considered one of the Enlightenment capital books, where the use of Reason was better expressed. The most important philosophers wrote articles in the Encyclopedia (Rousseau, Voltaire and Montesquieu).

Then we have started the sheme about The Enlightened thinking and Paqui has told us that we have to do it for homework.

During the class we have also copied some words and expressions:
To trust- confiar
Trust- confianza
Trust me!- Confía en mí 
To damage/hurt- dañar
Dare to know-atrévete a saber
Quote- cita
To dare- atreverse, osar
How you dare...?- ¿Cómo te atreves a...?
Wiseman- sabio
Updated- actualizado
Commitment- compromiso
To commit- comprometerse.
See you!

Monday, November 25, 2013

Some videos about Enlightenment

These are two very interesting videos about the Age of Reason.

- The first one gives a good definition of Enlightenemt and focused on the precedents, mainly the 17th century Scientific Revolution. It talks about Rationalism and Empiricism, the main scientists and their discoveries and the last minutes explain the main ideas of some enlightened philosophers. The video includes a final test to check if you have understood the basic information. 

- The second video comes from the University of Nottingham. Some experts explain the meaning of Enlightenment

Monday 25th November 2013

Hello classmates!
Today in the Social Science class, Paqui has started with the correction of the scheme that she sent us for homework. The scheme is about Ancien Régime:
Definition: Expression used by the French revolutionaries to describe all they wanted to destroy. On the other hand, they wanted to establish: a Representative government, elected by the citizens, a society based on equality of all the citizens, without privileges, a productive economy, where those who had initiate could make business without limitations
Main Features:
Politics: Absolute Monarchy was the predominant political system. Theoretically, the king held all the power, power which was supposed to come from God, so they were considered to be untouchable.
Economy: The main economic activity was subsistence agriculture, based on the three-year system of crop rotation, leaving one part fallow. Yield was low, there were no specialized crops and production was mainly destined to self-consumption. Most of the land was owned by the privileged (nobles and clergy). Peasants were the majority of the population. They worked the lords' lands and had to pay high taxes
Society: It was based on inequality and divided into estates, closed social groups to which one belonged from birth. Social promotion was almost impossible. There were two groups of people:
             · Privileged;They  were the nobles and the clergy who owned the majority, they didn't pay taxes and held the most important posts in the kingdoms.
                             · Nobles: They lived from the incomes their lands produced and could charge taxes to peasants.
                             · Clergy: They also lived from the incomes of their lands and charged the tithe as well. However, there were differences in this group: The high clergy shared lifestyle with the nobles, while the low clergy lived with modesty
               · Underprivileged: They were the Third Estate. They were the majority of the population (around 90-95%). This was a very diverse group, although they shared some common features: they worked to survive, had to pay taxes and were excluded from power and decision centers. The different groups of the Third Estate were:
                · Bourgeoisie: They were big merchants, bankers, master craftsmen, lawyers, doctors, teachers...Although some of them were rich, they were excluded from politics. That's why they wanted to get more power and social prestige.
               · Workers: Small craftsmen, servants, manufacture workers, soldiers and so on. They lived and worked in the cities
                · Peasants: They were the majority of the population (around 80%). Their life was hard: they worked for the privileged and had to pay taxes and rents to cultivate the lands of the privileged.


Changes in the 18th century
 There were less wars, less big epidemics, new crops were introduced (corn and potato) and mortality decreased. Population grew considerably in Europe.
The population increase it led to a bigger demand for all type of products. Prices increase it and this stimulated producers to produce more and increase their profits. Economic activities developed. Monarchies protected trade companies, continued to create manufactures and promoted agricultural reforms. Trade increased, especially colonial trade. Triangular trade, based on slaves' traffic, continued to be a profitable business
Later we have done exercise 3: Enlightenment
 Paqui has written many things about point 3 on the blackboard
15-16th century: Humanism: focus on human beings
17th century: Scientific Revolutions: Empiricism(experience to learn), Rationalism (doubt and reason to learn)
18th century: Enlightenment: Reason: as the base of knowledge and change of the world
And them, Paqui has explained this point with the power point that Beatriz included in her journal, and  then se has given us the scheme of Enlightenment as homerwork.
Today in this class, we have also  learnt some new words:
Yield- rendimiento
To graze- pastar
Fate- destino, sino (future)
Destination- destino (place where you arrive)
Average- medio
To question- cuestionar
Enlightened philosopher- ilustrado, filósofo ilustrado
Guarantor- garante
To guarantee- garantizar
Precedent- antecedente
 And finally, the bell has rung and we have gone to the next class!

That's all, See you!!

Saturday, November 23, 2013

Some pyramids and cartoons to represent the Ancien Régime society

These are some pyramids that show the social situation of the Ancien Régime very well. They are in French, because they refer to the place where the Ancien Régime was defined, but I'm sure you can easily understand them: 

And these are some Frech drawings which reflect the situation of the Third Estate, submitted to the privileged estates: 

Ph. C. Roux © Archives Larbor - Ph. © ESA - Ph. Hubert Josse © Archives Larbor
This is not going to last forever

We have to wait that the game ends soon