Today in social sciences we have done several things. First Paqui has remembered Charles III. His father was Philip V and had two wife : Mary house of Savoy and Isabella of Farnese (his mother). Mary house of Savoy had two son : Louis I (1724)who reigned for 6 months in 1724 and Ferdinand (1746-1759) who had no children. The other wife was Isabella of France and she had a son: Charles III (1759-1788) king of naples for 20 years and influenced by Enlightenment. His main was Esquilache.
Then, we have continued with the ESQUILACHE RIOTS: this occurred at the begginning of his reign, Charles III had some problems with the privileged. The privileged instigated the people's revolt using the new hygiene and public order ordinances as a pretext. The criminals covered themselves and It was difficult to identify them. The public order ordinances were anexcuse for the region and the privileged manipulated the people.
- The real causes: the privileged were angry with the ministre discontent of the privileged for the reforms Esquilache (Italian) was introducing.
- Excuse that started the riots: new hygiene and public order ordinances (including the ordinances about clothes).
- Consequences: Charles III dismissed Esquilache. Charles III expelled the Jesuits (accused of having participated in the riots) in 1767, accusing them of being responsible for the protsts but he didn't stop the reforms.
PUBLIC ORDER ORDINANCES
(cutting cloaks and brims)
Paqui has drawn a hat in the blackboard and has explained that the brim is the visor of the hat.
Then, she has explained again the Enlightened Despotism and we have continued with Charles III's reforms:
ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM: Some European monarchs adopted some ideas of the Enlightenment and introduced some reforms in their kingdoms, but, at the same time, they tried to preserve their absolute power. They made administrative, educational and economic reforms, but without asking their subjetcs for their opinion: they did "everything for the people, but without the people". They didn't touch the structure of power or the privileges of nobles and clergy. This is why the reforms they made were insufficient.
Representative of Enlightened Absolutism in Spain. Many of his minister were enlightened: Campomanes, Olavide, the counts of Aranda and Floridablanca.
Then we have continued with the enlightened reformism and Paqui has done a table in the blackboard about this. The table has divided into four parts:
REINFORCEMENT OF THE ROYAL POWER: in this part we have included:
- Expulsion of the Jesuits(1767).
ECONOMIC REFORM: in this part we have included:
- Colonization of new lands (in order to increase food production and improve agriculture).
- Limitation of the Mesta privileges (in order to increase food production and improve agriculture).
- Support to economic development throuth the Economic Societies of the Friends of the Country.
- Reports on the agrarian reform.
- Free trade with the Indies (all ports allowed).
- Liberalization of the price of wheat.
EDUCATIONAL REFORM: in this part we have included:
- Educational reforms: primary schools and reform of university studies.
SOCIAL: in this part we have included:
- Decree declaring honesty of all professions.
ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM: in this part we ha included:
- Administrative reforms in the Indies (2 more viceroyalties) Nueva Granada and Rio de la Plata.
All these were enlightened reform and all these reforms were limited and didin't questions the structure of the Ancien Régime.
EXPULSION OF THE JESUITS
Later, Paqui said that Charles III created during his reign:
San Carlos de Valle, in Campo de Montiel.
La Carlota, Jaen.
And we have remember mesta. This definition we have studied in 2nd of ESO. Mesta was an organization that protect the rights of the stockbreeders in Castile.
Later, we have finished with the Charles IV (1788-1808). He was Charles III’s successor. When Charles III died, his son Charles IV became the new king. He was not gifted to rule and Charles III adviced him to keep the Counts of Aranda and Floridablanca as ministers. He chose a minister who was the lover of his wife.
His rule was conditioned by the French Revolution.
At the end of the class, some students have asked for the doubts of the exam. The exam will be the next Friday. It is the last examen of the term and in this exam include:
1-The Ancien Régime and changes in the 18th century.
2-Enlightenment and Enlightened Depotism.
3-Independence of the 13 colonies of North America and the creation of the USA.
4-The 18th century in Spain:
A)The War of Spanish Succession.
B)The first Bourbons.
1.Centralist Abolution: Philip V and Ferdinand Vi.
2.Enlightened Despotism: Charles III.
The bell has rung and the class has finished for today.
Some words of the vocabulary:
- cloak- capa.
- brim- ala del sombrero.
- streetlights- farolas.
- stand by- parón.
- social- decree declaring honesty of all profesion.
Paqui in the break has helped me with for the journal. THANK YOU PAQUI.
The class of today was very complete and interesting. Luck for the exam, classmates.
See you the next day!