Today in the class of Social Sciences Paqui has started the class asking us about some videos of the blog about the Enlightenment because they can help us with the American or British accent. This videos explain some features about the Enlightenment.
Then we have started correcting the scheme about the features of Enlightenment:
- Absolute faith in Reason, as the best way to understand the world.
- Rejection of everything that couldn't be explained through Reason: the authority principle, superstitions, traditions... The authority principle was based on respecting the authority of people because someone has told you that you have to respect it. Some of these traditions were inhuman and so violent.
- Optimism and trust in progress. People thought that future will be better than present.
- Knowledge as the basis of happiness. Ignorant people could't be happy, they could seem happy but in fact it was different. This depends on the idea of happiness of everyone and on expectations. In conclusion, individual happiness is not colective happiness.
- Trust in education considered to be the best way to improve the living conditions of the people. The idea of educating people came from Enlightenment because the countries needed educated people.
- Religious tolerance: no religion was superior to another and Reason was enough to establish a morality code to determine how to behave. People had to respect the religions, no religion was better and people who didn't want to choose a religion had to follow some morality sules. These were rules of behavior that you follow in a society.
- Criticism of absolutism and the estates society and defense of freedom and equality of all the human beings.
- Etilist movement reserved to educated people.
Immanuel Kant "Dare to know"was one of the most important philosophers of Enlightenment
After Paqui has explained some things about the Encyclopedia: It was another way of transmission. This was a project of two French philosophers: Denis Diderot and Jean Rond D'Alambert.
People compiled all knowledge of their time in one book and they asked the main scientists and philosophers to write articles for their project.
Encyclopedia means "circular knowledge or learning". At first people wanted to compile Knowledge and it appeared during the Roman Empire by Pliny the Elder with Historia Naturalis.In the 7th century Saint Isidore of Seville, a bishop of the Visigothic Kingdom and wiseman, wrote the Etymologiae. The Chinese also wrote their own encyclopedic book in the 15th century called Yongle Encyclopedia. Finally a thrird copy was made ordered by the Chinese Emperor.In 1728 a British publisher, edited Cyclopedia: An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. This book was the precedent of the French Encyclopedia. a French publisher, wanted to translate the Cyclopedia but he completely changed the original project, because they asked different scientists and thinkers of their time to write articles about very different topics.The Encyclopedia was very popular and original. Diderot wrote on the Encyclopedia his main objective, which was "to change the way people think". That´s why the Encyclopedia has been considered one of the Enlightenment capital books, where the use of Reason was better expressed. The most important philosophers wrote articles in the Encyclopedia (Rousseau, Voltaire and Montesquieu).
Then we have started the sheme about The Enlightened thinking and Paqui has told us that we have to do it for homework.
During the class we have also copied some words and expressions:
To trust- confiar
Trust me!- Confía en mí
To damage/hurt- dañar
Dare to know-atrévete a saber
To dare- atreverse, osar
How you dare...?- ¿Cómo te atreves a...?
To commit- comprometerse.