Today in class of Social Sciences we have done several things. At the beginning of the class, Cristina has told us that there will be a meeting on Tuesday to talk about the trip to London and then, she has gone out.
Later, Paqui has remembered us that last day we were talking about "The fable of Arachne or the spinners", a mythological painting made by Velázquez based on the myth of Arachne. Then, she has continued explaining us one of the main features of the paintings of Diego de Silva y Velázquez: he painted and repainted his paintings many times. This is called pentimento (plural pentimenti): is an alteration in a painting, evidenced by traces of previous work, showing that the artist has changed his or her mind as to the composition during the process of painting. As time passes linseed oil oxidizes, its chemical structure is degraded and the color is less opaque and reveals the underlying layer. For example, you can watch the pentimento in portrait of Philip IV on horseback from the Prado Museum: we can see in the profile of the face of the king, in his moustache, in hat feathers, on the hind legs of the horse...
More information (in spanish, because I can't find it in English): http://www.luzrasante.com/el-caballo-de-seis-patas-sobre-los-arrepentimientos/
Next, we have done a scheme of the last unit contents (you can find this information on page 105 of the book):
Scientific Revolution (17th century): Extraordinary development of science and thinking in the 17th century as a result of the secularization process started with Humanism. It was based on new ways of reaching knowledge:
- Empiricism: method of knowledge based on experience: observing nature, formulating hyphoteses, testing them and writing a theory. Every scientist uses this method now. Scientific discoveries reached through this method: the ones made by Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton.
- Rationalism: method of knowledge based on the use of reason to learn. It was started by the philosopher René Descartes, who said: "I think, therefore I am" (Pienso, luego existo). Doubt was basic for him to start learning.
After copying the scheme, Paqui has explained it to us. We have talked about the Higgs Boson particle: an elementary particle initially theorised in 1964 and tentatively confirmed to exist on 14 March 2013. The discovery has been called "monumental" because it appears to confirm the existence of the Higgs field, which is pivotal to the Standard Modeland other theories within particle physics.
After the explanation, many people in the class have asked to Paqui if we can do the exam on Tuesday instead of Monday, because we have a lot of notes and we won't have much time to study. First Paqui hasn't changed the exam because Luis hasn't been agree with this, but later all the class have supported the change, so the exam will be on Tuesday. Paqui has adviced us that she has more classes and she won't change more exams.
At the end of the class, she has sent us for homework to look for ten possible questions in the exam of the unit 1. I have written these questions in my notebook:
1. Explain the main features of Renaissance Art and differentiates between architecture, sculpture and painting.
2. Explain the economy or society in the 17th century.
3. Explain all you know about the English Revolution (1648-1688).
4. Explain the architecture, sculpture and painting of Baroque art.
5. Write the problems in the Empire during the rule of Charles I.
6. Write the Policy Objetives during the rule of Philip II.
7. Definition of conquest, colonization and administration of the indies.
8. Write all you know about Philip III or Philip IV.
9. Write all you know about Charles II.
10. Definition of validos and Augsburg Peace.
Finally, we have copied some vocabulary:
-To oxide: oxidar.
-Pentimento (repentment) : arrepentimiento (correction made on a painting by a painter which has become visible later).
Have a nice weekend, see you on Monday!