Today in class of Social Sciences, Paqui has continued to explain us the painting of Velázquez. Diego de Silva y Velázquez was the best painter of his generation in the Hispanic Monarchy. His beginnings were in Seville. Recommended by the Count Duke of Olivares, he moved to the court and started painting for the royal familiy. He met Rubens and could observe the royal collections (paintings bought by the monarchs). Rubens recommended him to visit Italy, and Velázquez accepted the advice. He travelled twice to Italy, where he drew inspiration from the Renaissance masters, such as Leonardo Da Vinci, and Caravaggio. During his whole life, he fought to be recognized as an artist and not only as a simple craftsman.
Velázquez painted a lot of paintings. The most important ones are:
-Christ in the house of Mary and Martha
-The Waterseller of Seville: In this period people didn't have water in their houses and the watersellers sold it to people. This profession has disappeared and nowadays, it doesn't exist.
-Old Woman Cooking Eggs: In this period, people cooked in the streets. Nowadays, in Europe we have lost this tradition, but in some places of the world, like China, people continued to cook in the streets.
Velázquez painted many portraits, such as these ones:
-Luis de Góngora.
-Count Duke of Olivares
-The Triumph of Bacchus or the Drunks: In the Hispanic Monarchy, it was very strange that an artist painted mythological paintings, because the main theme was religion, especially Catholic religion, but Velázquez painted some mythological paintings as a consequence of Titian and Rubens'influence. The Triumph of Bacchus was made before his first trip to Italy
-Apollo in the Forge of Vulcan: This is a mythological painting based on this myth: Apollo went to the forge of Vulcan (Hephaestus) to inform him about the infidelity of his wife, Venus (Aphrodite) with the god of war, Mars (Ares) . In the painting, Vulcan's face expresses the surprise and consternation with the announcement.
-Christ on the cross: This painting was a commission by Philip IV. He gave this present to a convent, because he raped a nun and that's why the nuns were angry and scandalized. The affair didn't become public, because it was silenced with the present of this painting, also considered to be a penance for the king's sin.-Jesters: Jesters were a way of entertainment for the royalty, but Velázquez painted them in a very respectful way.
-The Surrender of Breda (1634-1635): In this painting, Velázquez wanted to capture that the winners of the battle respected the losers. This painting was conceived by Velázquez as an allegory of the nobility or gentlemanlyness of the Hispanic military.
-Equestrian portrait of the Count-Duke of Olivares: The Count-Duke of Olivares was painted in a very powerful position.
-Philip IV as hunter.
-Equestrian portraits of Philip III and Margaret of Austria.
-Prince Baltasar Carlos on horseback.
-Venus at her mirror or the toilet of Venus: We don't know who the woman of the mirror is.
-Pope Inocent X: The pope dindn't like this painting because it was "too realistic".
-Philip IV's family or The Meninas: This is one of the most famous paintings made by Velázquez. He portrayed himself in the photo, and, as we have said in class, he retouched the painting to paint the cross on his chest.
Finally, we have copied some vocabulary words:
-To forge: falsificar.
-To ask for: pedir.
-To comission: encargar un trabajo artístico.
-To order: encargar que traigan algo.
-Aerial perspective: perspectiva aérea.
-On horseback: a caballo.
-To spin: hilar.
This is all for today, see you !