Today we have started the class checking the scheme about Philip II that we had for homework. Siria has checked the first part of the scheme: territories he inherited and territories he added to his Empire. He inherited the rest of the Empire except for the Austrian territories and the title of Emperor, that were assigned to his uncle Fernando. He added Portugal and its colonies in Africa, Asia and America in 1580. The Philipinnes Islands were also annexed to the Empire in 1565. Paqui has explained the expression " the sun never set in his Empire" referred to Philip II, because he had territories in all the continents.
Then Maribel has checked the second part of the scheme: government.
-Philip established the capital city in Madrid.
-He took personal care of the government, he was helped by a professional bureaucracy and several councils: Council of War, Council of the Indies, Council of State...
Paqui has compared Charles I's government with Philip II's government. Charles I travelled a lot, on the other hand Philip II didn't move from the Iberian Peninsula, he didn't move from Castile. He considered Castile the most important territory. Philip built the Monastery of Escorial, he spent large part of his life there
because he thought that Madrid was dirty so he didn't like this.
The Monastery of Escorial.
(I have visited the Monastery and it's very interesting, if you have the oportunity, visit it)
Philip married Mary I Tudor (his aunt) and Ana of Austria (his niece) this is the cause that explain he had handicap children. He also married María Manuela of Portugal and Elisabeth of Valois.
Mary I Tudor
Ana of Austria
María Manuela of Portugal
In this web you have more information about the marriage.
Elisabeth of Valois
After, we have checked the las part of the scheme: policy.
Philip II wanted to be the defender of Catholicism and preserve all the territories. Charles I gave religious freedom (Augsburg Peace), do you remember? but Philip forbided other religions in the Empire. Religious intolerance caused many problems (especially in the Low Countries) and wars.
DEFENSE OF CATHOLICISM:
-Prohibition of Protestans in his kingdoms.
-He forbade the studens to study abroad, because he thought that they could be influenced and he wanted to prevent contact with other religions, other theorys.
-He reinforced the Inquisition to chase heretics.
-He forbade the import of books from Europe and if they captured you with forbidden books, you were sent to the Holy Inquisition.
-He established the concept of "blood cleanliness": the people who had Muslim or Jewish ancestors couldn't get posts in the administration.
Paqui has explained this concept with examples to understand better. She has remembered us Al-Andalus (we studied Al-Andalus in 2nd of ESO). Almost of the Iberian Peninsula have been in the hand of the Muslims so had Muslim ancestors.
The people forged their family books paying to get posts in the administration. They couldn't work in public institutions.
-Repression of the Moorish of Granada: prohibition of speaking Arabic, wearing their clothes and preserving their customs. This caused a revold in the Alpujarras (1567). The punishment was severe: 80,000 Moorish were exiled to other parts of the Peninsula (as far as possible).
PRESERVATION OF THE EMPIRE:
-Revolt in the Low Countries: The Northern Provinces of the Low Countries, revolted against taxation demands authoritarianism of the governors (Duke of Alba) and religious intolerance. The revolt started in 1548 and finished in 1648. Philip gave the Low Countries to his daughter Isabel Clara Eugenia , but she didn't have children and the Low Countries came back to the Hispanic Empire in 1621. The leader of this revolt was William of Orange (the present king of Holland comes from him)
Paqui has said that in Holland to scare children the people said "the Duke of Alba is coming" because he was bloodthirsty.
Duke of Alba
-War against France: The French were defeated in Saint Quentin (1557), but Philip continued to intervene in France: he supported the Catholics in the religion wars in France, between Huguenots (Calvinists) and Catholics.
Henry of Navarre was a huguenot but he accepted to convert to Catholicism to become the king of France.
Paqui has explained us the expression "Paris is well worth a Mass" Henry IV of France, here you have the information that Paqui wrote last year:
During the class we have added more words on the glossary:
to make a decision- tomar una decisión
proper- adecuado, correcto
proper Catholic- buen católico
blood cleanliness- limpieza de sangre
to exile- exiliarse (go to a different place)
to exile someone- desterrar
huguenot- hugonote (calvinista)
Paqui has tell us that we have to imporve our pronunciation. Now, I know how to pronunciate DECISION.
Finally the bell has rung and we have gone to the next class.
Pd: Sorry, I have written the journal as soon as possible, I hope that the next time won't be on Monday.
See you tomorrow.