Hello, I'm Diana. Today in class of Social sciences Paqui has told us what we were going to study this day. Then she has written a scheme in the blackboard about the decline of the Hispanic Monarchy during the 17th century.
There were three kings, and between theme there is one common feature: the three of them has a valido who took care of the reign.
The first of them was Philip III (1598-1621). He was a little lazy. He only likes hunting and playing cards, and because of that he has had two validos: Duke of Lerma and Duke of Uceda.
The Duke of Lerma was very corrupted, he used his influence with the monarch to become richer. For example, he convinced the king to move the capital city from Madrid to Valladolid so the land in Madrid will be cheaper and he could buy it. When he had bought the land he convinced the king to return the capital city to Madrid and after that he became very rich because he had bought a lot of land in there.
But the queen and also Duke of Uceda weren't happy with all of that so they conspired to get rid of the Duke of Lerma, but he was more intelligent and he became a cardinal so that they couldn't kill him.
After Duke of Lerma's fall in disgrace his son, the Duke of Uceda became the valido of Philip III.
Duke of Uceda
What happened during Philip III reign:
- Twelve Years' War (1609-1621): The northern Provinces of the Low Countries became practically independent.
- Expulsion of the Moorish (1609): They thought that the Moorish were still a danger for them because they thought that some of these Moorish people continued to pray to Allah, so they decided to expel them. In these time mora than 300,000 people were expelled (20% of the kingdom of Aragón and another 33% from the kingdom of Valencia). This strongly affected the Crown of Aragón's economy.
- Devaluation of Currency: the silver and gold coins were mixed with cooper.
The second king was Philip IV, he was also lazy and he didn't like to rul, he liked hunting, going to the theatre and he also liked romantic adventures. So his valido was Count-Duke of Olivares, and he has had some ideas and one of them was that all the kingdoms should have the same laws as the kingdom of Castile and to contribute to the expenses in the same way as Castile.
Count-Duke of Olivares:
What happend during Philip IV's reign:
- Thirty Years' War (1618-1648): it was the end of the Hispanic hegemony in Europe. At the beginning of this war they didn't intervened, but when France intervine in this war, they also did.
- Project of the Union of Arms: It provoked uprising in different kingdoms in 1640:
- Catalonia; supported by France. The conflict ended with the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659). Aragón lost the territories of Rosellón and Cerdaña, so now they belong to France. And also there was the Reapers' War. This war started on the day of the Chorpus Christi.
- Portugal; the conflict ended with the Treaty of Lisbon and the definitive independance of Portugal (1668).
We were also going to study about Charles II's reign, but we didn't have the enough time so we are going to learn about him tomorrow.
- Truce: tregua.
- Valido (favourite): favorito.
- Red Tape: papeleo.
- Compassionate: compasivo.
- Fall in disgrace: caer en desgracia.
- Tu such an extent that: hasta el punto que.
- Influence pedding: tráfico de influencias.
- Get rid of someone: deshacerse de alguien.
- Devaluate: devaluar.
- Reapers' War: Guerra dels Segadors.
- Reaper: segador.
- Reap: segar.
And that's all about today! Bye Bye! :)