Friday, March 15, 2013

Journal - Friday 15th March

Hello everybody!

Today in Social Sciences' class, we have talked about the Italian unification. First, we have arrived to the class and Paqui has said that we sent our project of the Restoration to El Intermedio. She has said that she sent it last Monday and they haven't answered. Then, Paqui has remembered us that we have to give her the sheet about our opinion about the projects

Afterward, Paqui has explained "the four Napoleons". She has said that: 
-Napoleon I was the Emperor of France between 1804 and 1814. 
-Napoleon II was the son of the previous one. He was appointed Emperor after Napoleon I's defeat at the Battle of the Nations in Leipzig, but the coalition that had defeated his father didn't accept this fact and he was obliged to withdraw.
-Napoleon III was Napoleon I's grandnephew. He was the French Emperor who helped the Italian States in their unification.
-Napoleon IV was Napoleon III's son. His early death broke up the hopes of a further Napoleonic restoration in France.


After that, we have continued with the unit. We have corrected the exercise one about the Italian unification. Paqui has showed us a Power Point presentation and some interactive maps about that.


1. Before 1859, the Italian peninsula was divided into seven States:
  • Piedmont-Sardinia. It was the most important one. It was a constitutional monarchy and the Italian unification started in this State. The king of this State was Victor Emmanuel II and his prime minister was the Count of Cavour, Camilo Benso.

  • Lombardy-Venetia.
  • Papal States.
  • Kingdom of the Two Siciles.
  • Parma.
  • Tuscany.
  • Modena.

Most of them were under the Austro-Hungarian Empire control.

2. 1859. The French Emperor helped the Italians (as we saw last day) against the Austro-Hungarians in exchange for the territories of Savoy and Nice, and Piedmont-Sardinia annexed Lombardy.

3. 1860. Parma, Modena and Tuscany joined Piedmont-Sardinia. In the South the republican Garibaldi conquered Naples and Sicily and he gave these lands to Victor Emmanuel II. Paqui has explained that the republican Garibaldi helped Victor Emmanuel II because he was very popular and because Garibaldi thought that the figure of a king will help to the unification.


4.1861. In this year, Italy was born.

5.1866. The Austro-Hungarians abandoned Venetia and the Italians occupied this territory.

6. 1870. The French abandoned Rome and the Italians annexed the Papal States and Rome became the capital city of the new State. Paqui has said that in this period, the pope was Pius IX.

(I have forgotten to paint Sardinia in the maps)

7. Italy became a constitutional monarchy ruled by the Savoy dynasty. The Italian Monarchy lasted from 1861 to 1946.

Paqui has explained that the Italian monarchy ended after WW2. She has said that the last king was Victor Emmanuel III. Victor Emmanuel III helped Mussolini, a dictator. Benito Mussolini who headed the National Fascist Party, organized the March on Rome. He didn't have much support but the king appointed him as prime minister in that year, 1922. Once in the government, Mussolini persecuted the opposition. In 1924, he won the elections and started transforming Italy into an authoritarian regime. A socialist deputy called Matteoitti denounced this and he was kidnapped and killed. Mussolini assumed the responsibility of this fact and all the opposition forces retired from the Parliament, so fascists got all the power. This event was called retirement on the Aventine Mount. After the defeat of Mussolini in WW2, the Italians decided in a referendum that they wanted a republic because the king supported the dictatorship.

Paqui has also said that the Vatican City State was created during Mussolini's dictatorship. And she has showed some photos of Mussilini's death. He was hanged by the partisans.


We have listened to the explanation of the unification with an interactive map and later Mónica has done an exercise with the map to review the stages of the Italian unification.

I have put an the source of an interactive map Paqui has shown us. It is very good and I think it's the best one:

Then, Pilar has asked Paqui about the marks of the projects. Pilar has said that she wants to know the mark because she wants to have time to change the mistakes. She has also said that she didn't like to do projects in groups because she prefers to work individually. Many people have supported Pilar. 

Paqui has said that we have to learn to work in groups. I think that we have to learn that when we do a project, we have to be flexible and to make agreements with our classmates. All the people can contribute to improve a project. I think that we have to acquire the habit of working in groups and to learn to reach agreements with other people. I also think that we have to use our knowledge to make things, like this type of projects.

  • Ally: aliado.
  • Pius IX: Pío Nono.
  • Demonstration: manifestación (not "demostración").
  • Partisan: partisano.
  • Vatican City State: Ciudad del Vaticano.
  • March on Rome: Marcha sobre Roma.
  • To acquire the habit of: estar acostumbrado a.
That's all for today! Next class we have the exam about the Industrial Revolution and the Labour Movement. Study and good luck!

Have a good weekend! Bye!


maria said...

Hi Salva !!

I like your journal because it's very good and very complete too. I haven't found any mistakes. You can add the opinion about Paqui on the works.

Study for the examen and good luck, byeee:)

Raquel Ortiz Escribano said...

Hello Salva!
Your journal is very complete and good as always! Good work! I continue with my opinion, I don't like doing team projects... I'm sad because it will reduce my mark... :(
Well, very good I haven't found any mistakes !
See you! :)

Gonzalo Martinez said...


Your journal is very good. I have found a mistake:
-It is very good I think it is the best one -> It is very good. I think it is the best one.

See you!

Cris Mínguez said...

Hi Salva!
Your journal is very good and very complete. I have read it two times and I haven't found any mistakes, but in the last sentence in which you said: next class we have the exam... I would like to know if it's possible to say: next class we're having the exam... but's that's all.
And about the projects, I think this project has been a good idea to learn how to work in group and to make better in the future with other projects similar to this.

Bye, see you and good luck for the exam !

Paqui Pérez Fons said...

Hello everybody,

The journal is very complete and there aren´t big mistakes. Just some details:

- The maps you´ve used should be in English. If you can´t find them in English, let it be.

- When you talk about Piedmont- Sardinia, there is a word order mistake: In this State the Italian unification started/ The Italian unification started in this State. Remember that the subject has to come before the verb.

- Most of them were under...

- ... to acquire the habit of… I think that this expression is more accurate for what you wanted to say.

You could also add that we listened to the explanation of the unification with the map whose link you´ve included and later Mónica did an exercise with the interactive map to review the different stages of the Italian unification. I think that map is also very useful to review the contents.

I agree with your opinion about learning through projects. I think this is one of the best ways to really learn and it´s also very useful to learn to listen to others´ opinions and to be aware that everybody can contribute, give ideas and do his/her best for a common goal. Academically brilliant students don´t usually like working in groups, because they think other students can take advantage of their work and their mark will also depend on the others. But this is a challenge you have to accept, because you have to learn to cooperate with other people. We live in a society and all the good things we have are the result of cooperation, collective work and the generosity of brilliant people who decided to share their ideas and make them improve with the help of other people. If you go back in history, you will find many examples of this. But you have the best examples in science: the biggest discoveries to fight against the AIDS or cancer have been done by teams of scientists, not by individuals. So, this is something you also have to learn to do and my role is to challenge you, to help you discover this. And you will have to learn to work not only with your best friends, but with different people. You would be surprised of the fact that, if everybody does his/her best, the results are extraordinary. And, as I always tell you, learning is not only passing exams and doing exercises.
And, as Cristina has said, we´ll do more projects. Some students suggested doing something similar with the history of Spain in the 20th century and I think it´s a great idea. We´ll talk about this very soon.

Have a nice afternoon. See you!