Thursday, January 12, 2012

2011-2012 Challenges. Number 15

These are this week´s questions. They are related to the causes of the Industrial Revolution. We´ll study some of the contents of this challenge next week. You should participate.

One of the causes of the changes in the way of manufacturing products was population growth. In the 18th century population increased considerably due to different factors, such as medical improvements. What was the most important advance in medicine during the 18th century? What doctor was the responsible for this important discovery?

What relation to Question 1´s discovery did the Spanish doctors Francisco Xavier Balmis and José Salvany have? Why are they so important in the history of world medicine?

Doctor Xavier Balmis

The picture below shows a turnip. Why was Viscount Charles Thownsend called "Turnip" Thownsend? What was his role in the 18th century British Agricultural Revolution?

What was Joseph Foljambe´s role in the agricultural innovations that contributed to the increase of production?


A famous music band of the 70´s got its name from an important 18th-century British agriculturist. Some of their albums are Aqualung and Too Old to Rock´n Roll: Too Young to die. What is the name of this band? What were the main contributions to agriculture of the man who gave name to this group?

What was Robert Bakewell and Thomas Coke contribution to stockbreeding?

P.S: I´ll include the source of the first picture when you solve the challenge.


beatriz yuste said...

QUESTION 1:In 1895 W.C Roenteng invented the x-ray.
QUESTION 2:They created the vacune of the viruela. They are important for the world of medicine.
QUESTION 3:Because he interested himself in agriculture and was responsible for indroducing into England cultivation of turnips on a large scale and for other improvements of the kind.
QUESTION 4:I don´t know
QUESTION 5:Jethro Tull and he helped to agriculture with the invention of the horse drawn hoe.
QUESTION 6:Robert Bakewell implemented the systematic selective breeding of livestock.

Javier Alberca said...

These are my answers:

Question 1:
The most important advance in medicine was the development of the smallpox vaccine by Edward Jenner, also known as the “Father of Inmunology”.

Question 2:
They did the Balmix Expedition, considered the first international health-care expedition in history. It was a three years mission that consisted in giving the vaccine to the Canary Islands, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, the Philippines and China. It was very important because they saved the life of many people.

Question 3:
He was called “Turnip Townshend” because he introduced to England the turnip and also the four-field crop rotation, and he made that many crops were cultivated with this method. His agricultural reforms were very important for England.

Question 4:
Joseph Foljambe invented the modern plough in 1730.

Question 5:
Its name was Jethro Tull. He perfected a horse-drawn seed drill in 1701 that sowed the seeds in neat rows, and later a horse-drawn hoe. He helped a lot to the English Agricultural Revolution.

Question 6:
Bakewell is the first person to implement systematic selective breeding of livestock. His apprentice, Thomas Coke, who used cocksfoot and lucerne as grass and feed respectively, with the result that in 1793 he had 2,400 sheep, as opposed to the 700 kept when he inherited the estates. He also discovered that the English Leicester (a type of sheep) became mature very fast when they ate turnips.

Bye! See you!

Paqui Pérez Fons said...


Javi´s answers are right, but I´m satisfied about the fact that Beatriz decided to participate.

I´m going to explain some curiosities about the vaccine and Balmis and Salvany expedition:

- Edward Jenner was the inventor of the smallpox vaccine. The principle of vaccine is inoculating a small dose of the virus you want to prevent, so that your organism is able to create the antobodies to combat the virus by himself. Jenner discovered that milkmaids didn´t get the smallpox and thought that this may be related with the pus inside the blisters milkmaids received from cowpox (a disease cows suffer, very similar to smallpox). He extracted the pus from one of these blisters and inoculated an 8-year-old boy with this liquid and the boy became immune to smallpox. In fact, the word "Vaccine" comes from "vaccinus,-a, -um" (bovine in English) and "Vacca,-ae" ("cow" in English). The cow that contributed to the invention of vaccine was called Blossom.

- Balmis and Salvany proposed to vaccinate all the children in the American colonies. Their expedition was financed by Charles IV, because his daughter, infant María Luisa, had suffered from smallpox. The problem was how to transport the vaccine to the Indies, because they didn´t have means of preserving it. Balmis had the idea of taking 22 orphans and inoculating the vaccine to some of them and passing it from ones to others. This way, the virus could arrive in America and they could start the vaccination campaign. This expedition was very important. They took the vaccine to the Canary Islands, Colombia, Perú, Ecuador, México, China and the Philippines and they inoculated thousands of children. This expedition is considered to be the first international healthcare expedition in history. Edward Jenner himself was admired by this important achievement.

That´s all. I hope you´ve enjoyed these stories.