Friday, December 16, 2011

2011-2012 Challenges. Number 13

Generals José de San Martín and Bernando O´Higgins crossing the Andes

This week´s challenge will be about the independence of the Spanish colonies of America. This process started during the Peninsular War, when differents colonies decided not to follow Joseph I ´s orders and took advantage of the power vaccum created on the Spanish side to start organizing their own governments. They also created boards and at the beginning they fought for Ferdinand VII´s return, but the situation changed when the Cortes of Cádiz decided to restrict the king´s powers. Many American boards started proclaiming independence and this process didn´t stop when Ferdinand VII came back to Spain. Here you have some questions to learn more about these events: 

An American social group had an important role in the process of independence. They were unhappy with their subordinated role in the colonies. What was the name of this group of people?

The most important national holiday in Mexico commemorates the first rebellion against the Peninsulars in 1810. What is the name of this rebellion? Who led this uprising?

What was the first American territory to declare independence?

How do we call the leaders of the independence?

Two of the most important leaders of the independence revolt celebrated a meeting to decide on the independence of Perú, one of the last territories in contiental America to reach independence. Who were these leaders? When and where did this meeting take place?

The Spanish army in the colonies was definitely defeated in 1824. This defeat confirmed the independence of the former territories of the Vicerroyalty of Perú. What is the name of this last battle against the independence fighters? What name did the Spanish military men who fought in this battle receive?


Javier Alberca said...

Hi Paqui! These are my answers...

Question 1:
I’m not sure but I think that they were the “criollos”.

Question 2:
It was called “Grito de Dolores” (“Cry of Dolores”) and it was leaded by the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.

Question 3:
The first ones in declare their independence was Colombia on the 20th July 1810.

Question 4:
They were called “libertadores” (“liberators”).

Question 5:
José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar met on the 26th July 1822 in Guayaquil (Ecuador).

Question 6:
The name of the battle was the Battle of Ayacucho. About the name that they gave to the Spanish people I’m not sure but I think that is "ayacuchos".

I am not sure about some of my answers in some questions because I've not found the specific concepts. I'll see.

Bye and thanks!

Paqui Pérez Fons said...

Hello Javi,

As usual, you´re the only person interested in learning more. Most of your answers are O.K. These are the corrections:

Question 1: the word in English is "Creoles".

Question 3: the first territory to declare independence was Venezuela on the 5th July 1811. Here you have a link:

That´s all. The rest of your answers are O.K. Many "ayacuchos" had a decissive role in the Spanish politics during Isabella II´s rule and during the Revolutionary Sexenio, such as Espartero, Maroto, Narváez, O´Donnell, Serrano and Prim. We´ll know some of them during this week.

Have a good night.