Today in Social Sciences, Paqui has explained the Italian and the German Unification again, because we only read the things and we did the exercises but it wasn´t explained.
The things that we have learnt today have been the following:
Before the Congress of Vienna, Italy wasn´t a country. It was divided into states, in total seven states and the most important was Piedmont Sardinia. The Count of Cavour looked for help to oppose against Austria and he got France´s help. They declared war to Austria. In 1859 Lombordy was annexed to Piedmont Sardinia. But Lombardy-Venetia, Parma, Moderna and Tuscany, were states under the control of Austria, and it was its main enemy. In 1870, the Papal States were annexed to Italy and Rome became the capital city of Italy. The Pope excommunicated the Royal family. In 1929, the Letran Agreement took place, and it led to the creation of the Vatican city. Nowadays the Vatican city has its own tv channel, laws and it´s included in Italy, there isn´t any border between the Vatican city and Italy. Italy became a constitutional monarchy ruled by Savoy dynasty, from 1861 to 1946.
After the Unification of Italy we have talked about the German unification. Germany was formed by 38 states before the Congress of Vienna and the most important were Prussia and Austria. Prussia led to the creation of a customs unions and the main figures were Wilhem I king of Prussia and his prime minister Otto Van Bismack. He was called “Iron Chancellor” which means : Canciller de hierro. He though that Unification was only possible through war. Germany Unification was achieved with three wars: War against Denmark in 1864. Denmark was formed by two duchies-ducados- Schleswig and Holstein. Prussia and Austria declared war to Denmark. Prussia decided to annex some of these duchies, the logic was to annex to Holstein but it decided to annex Schleswig and this led to the Austrian war in 1866. And the last war was the French- Prussian war in 1870, and this war caused, the second Empire disappeared and the third republic was proclaimed in France, France lost Alsace and Lorraine, all the German States became united and the second German empire was proclaimed. The French resentment against Germany remained for many years and the consequences of this war were one of the causes of the First World War. A man called Bismark considered that was necessary a solution to join all the German States, and he looked for a reason for war against France. Paqui has explained us wiht some classmates and every one was a character. Bismarck manipulated a dispacth about the conversation between Kaiser Wilhem I and the French ambassador at Ems Spa. Their conversation was about Leopold Hohenzollern, who was the German candidate to the Spanish throne. Bismarck changed the French ambassador´s words as unacceptable. France declared war to Prussia and all the German States united against France.
Finally Paqui has explained a little about Colonialism and we have seen a picture about Bejanmin Disraeli. He was as an octopus seizing colonies all over the world.
As we didn´t have time to check the exercises, next day we are going to check them.
See you J