Thursday, February 2, 2012

2011-2012 Challenges. Number 18

This week´s questions will refer to the International Workingmen´s Association and anarchism in Spain:



The first members of the IWA in Madrid



QUESTION 1
After the 1868 Glorious Revolution in Spain, the International Workingmen´s Association sent some propagandists to Spain spread the ideas of workers´ union. Who were the Marxist and Anarchist IWA propagandists who came to Spain? Which of them got more success?

QUESTION 2

After the failure of the Commune of Paris, there was a strong repression against the Anarchists and some of them oriented to the so-called "propaganda by the deed" and used terrorism as a way of destroying the institutions that repressed them. In Spain three prime ministers were assassinated by Anarchist gunmen in the last decade of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th century. Who were these three prime ministers ? What were the names of their killers?

QUESTION 3
One of the consequences of the Tragic Week of Barcelona in 1909 was the execution of a famous Anarchist pedagogue. There was an international protest campaign against this execution. Who was this man?


Tragic Week of Barcelona, 1909


QUESTION 4
In 1910 an Anarchist union was created in Spain. What was its name? How many members did this union have before the Spanish Civil War?

QUESTION 5
Although the Anarchists declared themselves apolitical, during the Spanish Civil War four Anarchists became members of the government of the 2nd Republic. Who were these four ministers?

2 comments:

Javier Alberca said...

Hello!! These are my answers:

Question 1:
I think that one of them was Giusseppe Fanelli, but I haven’t found more.

Question 2:
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, who was killed by Michelle Angiolillo, José Canalejas who was killed by Manuel Pardiñas and Eduardo Dato, killed by Pedro Mateu who was accompanied by Ramón Casanellas and LLuís Nicolau.

Question 3:
He was Francisco Ferrer Guardia.

Question 4:
It was the CNT (Confederación Nacional del Trabajo). The unión could reach to 1,500,000 members before the Spanish Civil War.

Question 5:
Juan García Oliver, as Justice Minister, Federica Montseny Mañé, as Health Minister and Social Affairs, Juan López Sánchez, as Trade Minister and Juan Peiró Belis, as Industry Minister.

Paqui Pérez Fons said...

Hello Javi,

All your answers are right. On question 1, Fanelli was the person sent by Bakunin. Marx sent his son-in-law, Paul Lafargue, but Fanelli got more success and most of the Spanish workers oriented to Anarchism, rather than Marxism. Anarchism extended mainly to Catalonia and Andalusia. Marxism developed mainly in Madrid, Asturias and Bilbao.

The success of Anarchism in Spain was related to the way workers perceived the State: as a repressing power that didn´t give them anything (there were no social services at all) and was only a tax collector. That´s why most of the Spanish workers liked the Anarchist ideas most. When workers started improving their working conditions and getting more rights and the State started providing services to the citizens (Welfare State), Anarchism lost most of its support in Spain.

Congratulations. Have a nice end of weekend.