Today in Social Sciences , at the beginning of the lesson I have showed the poster of The musical of Evita to Paqui and the classmates. Afterwards Sara has checked the exercise nine about the disappearance of the Monarchy in 1792 and the consequences to the King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, but she has had the exercise wrong so Paqui has explained us and we have copied the answer. The King Louis XVI conspired against France and the European absolute monarchies attacked France. The people discovered what the King had done and stormed his palace (Tuilleries) and he was arrested. The Assembly decided to end Monarchy and to establish a Republic. Then the Monarchs were accused of treason and condemned to death and executed by guillotine. For this reason was decided to didn´t have more Monarquies in France.
We have continued with the unit and we have started a new point: The Democratic Republic from 1792 to 1794. After the arrest of the King, Republic was proclaimed and a new assembly was chosen with a different name: Convention, it concentrated the executive and the legislative power. The Republic was divided into two periods, the Girondist Convention (1792-1793) and the Jacobins Convention (1793-1794). The Girondists decided to execute the King by guillotine. (Usually the nobles were executed with an ax and the poor people died hanging). This decision provoked a counter- revolutionary revolt in the Vendée and a European coalition against France, a war. It was the first coalition. In June 1793 the sand culottes gave the power to the Jacobins. The Jacobin Convention gave the executive power to the Committee of Public Safety some members were Robespierre, Saint Just ( he was the most radical), Couthon and Danton. They took some important decisions:
- Mass conscription.
- New Constitution including universal male suffrage, popular sovereignty, equality and social rights.
- Distribution of properties of the counter-revolutionary for the poor people and sell of the Church properties.
- Law of the maximum, to control the prices.
- Closure of Churches and cult of Reason.
- Law of suspects: The Committee Of General Security was in charge of arresting, judging and quickly executing all the suspected counter-revolutionary.
16,000 people were executed by guillotine in nine months.
Paqui has explained us that a way of kill the people was extracting the intestine and put it around a tree. In this way you suffered a lot because you died slowly. When people were decapitate was like a show, people went to see that. The guillotine in France was used until 1979 because death penalty was abolished in this date.
One feauture of the guillotine is that it had a cross-cutting blade to kill the people better. In Spain was used the Garrotte Vil. In consisted of sitting the people and putting an iron ring around their neck. They pressed your neck and you died because your neck was broken. It was used until 1960.
One sentence that refers to the Reing of Terror was: It´s dreadful, but necessary.
No we think our ideas without violence but in that period they didn´t think in this way.
We have learn some new words:
Mass Conscription: reclutamiento forzoso.
Law of suspeots: ley de los sospechosos
We have an exercise for homework.