Today in social science Paqui starting talking about the English Revolutions.
There are two English Revolutions:
The first startaed in 1648:
- CHARLES I: he tried to rule as an absolute monarchy without the control of the Parliament. He arrested and executed those who opposite him.
- The consequences of the revolution are because the Parliament rebelled and a civil war started.
- Charles was decapitated and the Republic was proclaimed.
- OLIVER CROMWEL was the strongest man of the English Republic. He acted as a dictator. Was appointed Protector Lord. When he died, monarchy was restablish.
- CHARLES II was Charles I's son. He had to accepted the control of the Parliament and the Habeas Corpus that means: "You are innocent until proven the opposite". At his death the Duke of York (his brother) became king. He reigned as James II.
The second Revolution started in 1668:
- JAMES II: he reigned only for three years. He was a catholic who wanted to restore Catholicims in England. This led him to confrontations with the Parliament. A new revolution against absolutims started.
- WILLIAM OF ORANGE (1168-1702). He dethrone James II and became the king of England with the condition of limiting his power. In 1689 he swore the BILL OF THE RIGHTS (limited the king's power and put some decitions under the control of the Parliament).
- England was the first country to have a limited monarchy and the powers were separated: executive (king) and the legislative ( Parliament)
We have also been talking about the preferences of each one of us on the republics or monarchies.
Five of my classmates prefer the republic because they say that being in a democratic country, we must choose who we want.
Paqui has also spoken about CULTURE: THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION.
- Science and thinking made big progress with the development of the Espiricism and the Rationalism.
- ESPIRITIMS: It the method of knowledge and research based on experience. Galileo Galilei: he improved the telescope and he defended the heliocentric theory of Nicolas Copernicus ( he explains that the Sun doesn´t turn around the Earth, unlike). He was arrested by the Inquisition an had to lie to save.
- RATIONALISM: René Descartes: who defended the use of doubt as a method to know the world and he propose the mathematic language as a model on which to base knowlaedge. His exposed his ideas on the Discourse on the Method.
- ACADEMIES: some kings were conscious of the importance of scientific knowledge and they founded academies.
ROYAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCE
ART AND LANGUAGES IN PARIS.
ROYAL SOCIETY IN LONDON.