I'm Azahara and today it's my turn to write the journal. Today has been a different day, because Paqui hasn't come to the high school, she has gone on a trip to Toledo. Today I couldn't go to class, but my classmates have told me that they have stayed in the class with the teacher Antonio Garrido, and they have started doing the scheme of the different stages of World War 1.
World War 1 was divided into 4 stages:
- 1st stage: War of movement (1914): the armies moved towards the enemy. Fight developed in two fronts. In the Western front the Germans attacked France through Luxembourg and Belgium (Schlieffen Plan, to take Paris: the Germans planned a short fight against France to focus in the Eastern front against Russia. This failed and they had to fight almost alone in two fronts). After the battle of Marne, the French stopped the German advance. In the Eastern Front the Russians advanced through Eastern Prussia and Galitzia. The Germans stopped them after the Battles of the Masurian Lakes and Tannenberg.
Situation at the 1st stage of WW1.
- 2nd stage: War of attrition (1915-1916): The war fronts stabilized and didn't move since the end of 1914. Soldiers dug kilometres of trenches and tried to keep their positions. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers and Italy and Romania the Triple Entente. In the Western front the German attacked in Verdun and the French reacted at the Somme. The front didn't move, but there were around two million victims. In the Easternt front a big German offensive to the East took place and the Russiand had to retire back.
- 3rd stage: crisis of 1917. There were internal problems in all the belligerent countries: soldiers' mutinies in all fronts, nationalist protests in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Easter Rising in Ireland and a revolution in Rusia: the Bolsheviks took power in October 1917 and decided to sign an agreement with the Germans to take Russia out of the war. In the Middle East, the Arab tribes revolted against the Turks and the British got a lot of territory. The USA and Greece joined the Triple Entente.
STORMING OF THE WINTER PALACE (Saint Petesbourg)
- 4th stage: end of the war (1918): two decisive facts took place:
b) Brest-Litovsk Treaty, signed between Russia and Germany. Russia lost Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine.
The Germans could focus on the Western front and launched two offensives: 1st at the Somme and 2nd at the Mame. Revolts in the German army and protests against the government started in Germany. In the Eastern fron Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire surrendered. The Austro-Hungarian army collapsed in the North of Italy and the Balkans. Protests increased in Germany and Kaiser Whilem II abdicated . The republic was proclaimed and the armistice was signed at Rethondes.