Today in Social Sciences, Paqui has shown us a power point about the decline of the Hispanic Empire in the 17th century and we have checked the scheme about it.
Paqui has explained us what and who were the "validos", king's favourites who ruled on their behalf, members of the nobility.
· Philip III (1598-1621) , handed his power over the Duke of Lerma. There were some internal problems and he decided the expulsion of the Moorish. This caused a big economic crisis in the crown of Aragon and the currency was devalued for the first time. The economic situation led to a more realistic policy in Europe and a truce was signed with England and the Low Countries.
· Philip IV, handed his power over the Count-Duke of Olivares. The Count-Duke consolidated the Hispanic hegemony in Europe and established the same law over all the peninsular kingdoms. He took some decisions to achieve these objectives:
Participation in the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). It confronted the Protestant kingdoms with the Catholic kingdoms. The first part of the war was favourable for the Spanish army, but later Protestants changed the sign of war. The Spanish army was defeated in Rocroi (1643) and the war ended with the signature of the Treaty of Westphalia, it means the United Provinces of Holland became independent, the Hispanic Monarchy lost the supremacy in Europe and the kingdom of France became hegemonic.
Project of the Union of Arms. In this part of the class Laura Meco has done a question, because she didn't understand what happened here and Paqui has explained her that Philip IV wanted all the territories of the Monarchy have had the same laws as Castile and them to contribute to the military expenses of the Monarchy. There were revolts in Andalusia, Navarre, Aragon and the most serious revolts were in Portugal and Catalonia. Finally, Portugal became independent in 1668 and Catalans asked the French for help to fight against the king, but they had to surrender in 1652. Philip IV and Luis XIV of France signed the Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659.
· Charles II was constanly sick and unable to rule. The Empire had enormous problems and a powerful enemy, France. His death caused the War of the Spanish Succession (1700-1713) and the enthroning of the Bourbon dynasty. Paqui has explained us that he had two wives, one of them died, but with the other he coudn't have children because he only had a testicle.
Today Paqui has been a little angry, because we didn't stop speak...
We have learnt some new words as, "inbreeding", "hexed", "beggar", "rogue", "blind" and "The Swindler". At the end of the class she has given us the name of some paintings or sculptures and we have to do a project as the other of the last year. 13th of October, we are going to explain it for all the classmates.