First, we have done a review, spoken about liberalism (those who supported this thought that humans are born free and with some rights guaranteed by the State, and they are agree with the division of powers) and nationalism (political ideology that defends the right of the peoples to decide by themselves and form independent states).
Then, we have learned about the revolutions of 1820, 1830 and 1848 in Europe. The ideas that caused the revolutionary waves were the following:
- in absolutist States, end the Ancien Régime and establish liberal regimes. When this was achieved, democratization became the main demand.
- the peoples submitted to the big empires fought to create independent states (nationalism).
Paqui has made a chart in which she explained the revolutions in 1820:
SPAIN--> Development: liberal uprising. Consequences: liberal regime, but return to the absolutism in 1823.
PORTUGAL-->Development: liberal uprising. Consequences: liberal regime, but absolutism came back years later.
PIEDMONT-SARDINIA AND NAPLES-->Development: liberal uprising. Consequences: failed.
GREECE.-->Development: nationalist uprising. They got the support of the Uk and France.
-->Consequences: 1829-Independence, 1832-Monarchy.
RUSSIA-->Development: in 1825 the decembrists revolted to establish a liberal regime. Consequences: crashed by tsar Nicholas I.
SPANISH COLONIES AMERICA-->Development: the revolt had started during the Peninsular war. It was both a nationalist and liberal revolt. Consequences: by 1824 almost all the colonies became independent republics.
We have started in class another chart of the revolution in 1830, that happened in:
-France (with the approval of the constitutional monarchy).
-United Kingdom of Netherlands (the Belgians became independent and established a constitutional monarchy).
-Poland (nationalist revolt crashed by Russia).
-Italian Peninsula (crashed by Austria).
-German Confederation (repressed by Austria and Prussia).
-Spain (a constitutional monarchy was stablished and the reforms that ended with the Ancien Régime).
-United Kingdom (a consequence of the trade unions pressure, Reform Act in 1832).
-Pole (noun): polaco.
-Polish (adjective): polaco.
-Power vacuum: vacío de poder.
-Succeed: tener éxito.
-Fail: fracasar, suspender (school)
-Trade union: sindicato.