Hello, I'm Jaime. Today it's my turn to do the review of the class. So, Come on. At the beginning we have watched a video about Enlightened thinkers. This onetalked about philosophers who wanted to illuminate the darkness of the world with the light of reason. One example of this was the challenge promoted by the philosopher Immanuel Kant. Jean Rond D'Alembert and Denis Diderot developed the yearning to know and created the Encyclopedia. The first edition was published in 1751.
The thinking of the Enlightenment can be divided into:
- Voltaire: he defended that the power of the king had to be limited by the Parliament, a universal tax system and religious tolerance.
- Montesquieu: he defended the division of powers into three institutions ( executive, legislative and judicial)
- Jean Jacques Rousseau: he defended the social contract and the general will.
Mercantilism had been the predominant economic policy in the 16th and the 17th centuries:
the wealth of a country depends on the quantity of precious metals it accumulates and exporting more than importing was the best way to achieve this
Physiocracy was the new economic trend. They considered agriculture the most important economic activity.
You can find this information on a video of the blog.
After the video, we have done a review of the last class. Then Paqui has explained the Enlightened Despotism and the Independence of U.S.A. with a scheme on the digital board andthe blackboard
-Definition: Absolutism plus the Ideas of Enlightenment
-Reforms made: Educational, Economic and Administrative reforms
- Enlightened Despotism motto: " Everything for the people, but without the people”
-Limits of the reform: They didn't touch (of) the structure of absolute power and privileges(estate- based society). Reforms were insufficient
-Examples of enlightened monarchs: Catherine II of Russia (for the people , but without people.)
Independence of the USA
-Eastern Coasts of North America
-The north American colonists didn't have representatives in the British Parliament, the British government constantly increased the taxes and had the monopoly of trade with the North American colonies
The main features of the U S A.:
-The Constitution and the Bill of the Rights
-A government chosen by the citizens: A republic
-Division of powers
- USA is divided into different states
Finally Paqui has given us to complete the scheme of the Independence of the USA. While we were finishing the scheme, she has set the date of the Exam of the unit about 17th century.
You can find this information on a presentation and in the book of 4th of Eso
-Tea Tax: Impuestos de Tasas
-Staple production: de 1º necesidad